Mixed Culture of Corn and White Lupine as an Alternative to Silage Made from Corn Monoculture Intended for Biogas Production
The production of biomass from legumes for energy purposes is considered an important element of sustainable agriculture. Leguminous plants allow the biological fixation of nitrogen (BFN), which contributes to reduction in the input of mineral fertilizers, and hence lightens the environmental burden. Replacing mineral inputs into crop production using BFN (the production of silage) represents an important step towards achieving greater sustainability of biogas station operation. This paper deals with the possibility of using silage prepared from a mixture of conventional energy crops—corn and legume (lupine) in biogas stations. The aim of the paper was to find out how the addition of legume affects the production of methane and to determine the optimal ratio of maize and lupine in silage. Different variants of silage were prepared: without the addition of legume (sole corn), with the addition of lupine at different ratios (50/50, 70/30, 90/10), and sole lupine. This silage was subjected to fermentation tests and analyzed in order to determine the nutrient content effect on the fermentation process. The lowest total methane production was detected in the lupine silage and the highest total methane production was observed in the maize silage (0.327 m3 CH4/kg VS) and in the mixed silage 90/10 (0.330 m3 CH4/kg of VS). It was found that with the increasing proportion of lupine in the silage, methane production (50/50 < 70/30 < 90/10) declines due to the increased content of poorly degradable organic substances.
KeywordsLegumes Lupine Maize silage Mixed culture Methane Biogas plant
This research was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, institutional support MZE-RO1719.
- 7.Vasileiadis VP, Sattin M, Otto S, Veres A, Pálinkás Z, Ban R, Pons X, Kudsk P, van der Weide R, Czembor E, Moonen AC, Kiss J (2011) Crop protection in European maize-based cropping systems: current practices and recommendations for innovative integrated Pest management. Agric Syst 104(7):533–540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2011.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Jørnsgaard B, Kinane J, Steen Jensen E (2008) Grain legume–cereal intercropping: the practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems. Renew Agric Food Syst 23(1):3–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170507002025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Stinner PW (2015) The use of legumes as a biogas substrate - potentials for saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Energy Sustain Soc 5(4). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-015-0034-z
- 18.Harvani JL (2013) Assessment of dry forage and crude protein yields, competition and advantage indices in mixed cropping of annual forage legume crops with barley in rain fed conditions of Zanjan province in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal 2(29):169–183Google Scholar
- 19.Kettl KH, Niemetz N, Sandor N, Eder M, Narodoslawsky M (2010) Ecological evaluation of biogas feedstock from intercrops. Chem Eng Trans 21:433–438 http://www.aidic.it/cet/10/21/073.pdf. Accessed 30 May
- 20.Loučka R, Lang J, Jambor V, Nedělník J, Třináctý J, Tyrolová Y, Kučera J (2014) Verified methodical process of obtaining and processing the values in the national system of evaluation of silage corn hybrids, the certified methodology. CZE:1–47Google Scholar
- 26.Dubrovskis V, Adamovics A, Plume I, Kotelenecs V, Zabarovskis E. Biogas production from greater Burdock, Largeleaf Lupin And Sosnovsky Cow Parsnip, 10th International Scientific Conference ENGINEERING FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT, Jelgava, 26.-27.05.2011, pp 388–392. http://tf.llu.lv/conference/proceedings2011/Papers/Title_Contents.pdf. Accessed 4 March
- 28.Hataka A (1994) Lignin-modifying enzymes from selected white-rot fungi: production and role from in lignin degradation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13(2–3):125–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1994.tb00039.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Jördening H-J, Winter J (2005) Environmental biotechnology concepts and applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
- 33.Carvalho L, Di Berardino S, Duarte E. Biogas production from Mediterranean crop silages, Proceedings Sardinia 2011, Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill ymposium S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3–7 October 2011. 2011 by CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre, ItalyGoogle Scholar