BioEnergy Research

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 803–815 | Cite as

Shrub Willow (Salix) Biomass Crop Performance on Five Sites Over Two Rotations in Michigan, USA and the Implications of Adequate Field Testing to Commercial Producers

  • Raymond O. MillerEmail author


Fifteen varieties of willow (Salix) hybrids were observed in a replicated study on five diverse sites in Michigan during the establishment year and over two subsequent 3-year rotations. Sixty-one percent of the total variation in yield observed was due to environmental factors, 11% was due to genetic factors, and the remainder was unexplained. Biomass yield over 6 years ranged from 50.5 oven-dry Mg ha−1 at one site to 22.9 oven-dry Mg ha−1 at another. Warmer and wetter sites tended to produce more biomass than colder drier sites, but correlations between yield and other edaphic and climatic factors were less clear. High-yielding varieties tended to be taller, but survival and number of stems per stool were uncorrelated with yield. A cohort of elite varieties selected based on test-wide performance produced up to 26% more biomass than randomly chosen varieties. Cohorts of elite varieties selected based on performance in local tests did better, producing up to 31% more biomass than randomly chosen varieties. Because of ranking changes, selections made after two rotations outperformed those made after only one rotation by as much as 9%. Adequately tested planting stock has the potential to increase the financial return to a willow energy farmer by nearly $100 ha−1 year−1. This will multiply rapidly as willow is planted on some of the 700 million hectares of retired cropland in the USA. The nominal cost of breeding and field testing willow energy crops can be easily justified as we proceed to the envisioned billion-ton bioeconomy.


Hybrid willow Commercial Biomass Yield Variation 



The technical assistance of Bradford Bender, Kile Zuidema, Paul Irving, and other university staff and students during the 10 years of this project is gratefully acknowledged. Without their dedication and diligence, the data summarized here would have never been gathered and compiled. Thanks also to Daniel Keathley for his review and suggested improvements to the manuscript.

Funding Information

Essential funding to maintain and monitor the willow network in Michigan over the past several years was provided by the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center at South Dakota State University through a grant provided by the US Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office under award number DE-FC36-05GO85041. Additional funding was provided by Michigan State University AgBioResearch.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michigan State University, Forest Biomass Innovation CenterEscanabaUSA

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