BioEnergy Research

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 447–453 | Cite as

Kinetics and Energetics of Producing Animal Manure-Based Biochar

  • Kyoung S. RoEmail author


Pyrolysis of animal manure produces biochar with multiple beneficial use potentials for improving soil quality and the environment. The kinetics and energetics of pyrolysis in producing manure-based biochar were reviewed and analyzed. Kinetic analysis of pyrolysis showed that the higher the temperature, the shorter the reaction time was needed for thermal decomposition and carbonization of animal manure. This kinetic information can assist in producing biochar with a desired proximate composition. Biochar with lower volatile matter (VM) content can be produced with either higher pyrolysis temperature or longer reaction time. Energetically, pyrolysis of wet manures is not sustainable due to high energy needed for drying moisture. However, co-pyrolysis with other high energy density wastes such as agricultural plastic wastes would produce not only energetically sustainable biochar but surplus energy as well. This could be used for local power generation.


Biochar Animal manure Pyrolysis Kinetics Energetics 



The author would like to acknowledge the technical and editorial support provided by Dr. Judy A Libra of Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB), Potsdam-Bornim, Germany. This research is part of the USDA-ARS National Program 214 Agricultural and Industrial Byproduct Utilization. Mention of trade names or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA-ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water & Plant Research CenterFlorenceUSA

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