Advertisement

Psychometric evaluation of three versions of the Italian Perceived Stress Scale

  • Marina Mondo
  • Cristina SechiEmail author
  • Cristina Cabras
Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Stress is measured through the use of tools that allow detection in large samples, and the search effort is directed to validating tools to ensure that they are predictable. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is one of the three most commonly used tools to measure perceived stress. The three versions of the PSS have never been evaluated for use with Italian workers. Therefore, the overall aims of this study are to translate and clarify the psychometric properties of the Italian versions, known as IPSS-14, IPSS-10, and IPSS-4 for use with Italian precarious workers. A sample of 649 precarious workers (mean age = 39.6, SD = 10.1) participated in this study, which consisted of 393 males and 256 females. The sample was randomly split into two for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to investigate the PSS structure. The two-factor models for the three Italian versions of PSS showed a better fit than the single-factor models. The reliability was high for IPSS-14 and IPSS-10. The results suggest that the psychometric properties of IPSS-10 are greater than those of IPSS-14 and IPSS-4. Therefore, IPSS-10 can be reliably used to measure perceived stress and is a suitable tool to incorporate the support/intervention programs for Italian precarious workers.

Keywords

Italian Perceived Stress Scale Exploratory factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis Precarious workers 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Statement of Human Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52(3), 317–332.Google Scholar
  2. Andreou, E., Alexopoulos, E. C., Lionis, C., Varvogli, L., Gnardellis, C., Chrousos, G. P., & Darviri, C. (2011). Perceived stress scale: Reliability and validity study in Greece. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(8), 3287–3298.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, J. L. (2006). Amos (version 7.0) [computer program]. Chicago: SpSS.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, T. (2006). CFA with equality constraints, multiple groups, and mean structures. In T. Brown (Ed.), Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (pp. 236–319). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230–258.Google Scholar
  8. Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling: Perspectives on the present and the future. International Journal of Testing, 1(3–4), 327–334.Google Scholar
  9. Chaaya, M., Osman, H., Naassan, G., & Mahfoud, Z. (2010). Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS-10) among pregnant and postpartum women. BMC Psychiatry, 10(1), 111.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke, M., Lewchuk, W., de Wolff, A., & King, A. (2007). ‘This just isn't sustainable’: Precarious employment, stress and workers' health. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 30(4), 311–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology (pp. 31–67). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cook, J., Hepworth, S. J., Wall, T. D., & Warr, P. B. (1981). A compendium and review of 249 work review measures and their use. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Eklund, M., Bäckström, M., & Tuvesson, H. (2014). Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Swedish version of the perceived stress scale. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 68(7), 494–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Graham, J. M. (2006). Congeneric and (essentially) tau-equivalent estimates of score reliability: What they are and how to use them. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(6), 930–944.Google Scholar
  16. Hadden, W. C., Muntaner, C., Benach, J., Gimeno, D., & Benavides, F. G. (2007). A glossary for the social epidemiology of work organisation: Part 3, terms from the sociology of labour markets. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 61(1), 6–8.Google Scholar
  17. Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Mosher, S. W. (1992). The perceived stress scale: Factor structure and relation to depression symptoms in a psychiatric sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(3), 247–257.Google Scholar
  18. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
  19. Istat, S. (2017). Censimento popolazione Istat; 2016.Google Scholar
  20. Kim, M. H., Kim, C. Y., Park, J. K., & Kawachi, I. (2008). Is precarious employment damaging to self-rated health? Results of propensity score matching methods, using longitudinal data in South Korea. Social Science & Medicine, 67(12), 1982–1994.Google Scholar
  21. Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  23. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1994). Stress, appraising, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, E. H. (2012). Review of the psychometric evidence of the perceived stress scale. Asian Nursing Research, 6(4), 121–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lesage, F. X., Berjot, S., & Deschamps, F. (2012). Psychometric properties of the French versions of the perceived stress scale. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 25(2), 178–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Leung, D. Y., Lam, T. H., & Chan, S. S. (2010). Three versions of perceived stress scale: Validation in a sample of Chinese cardiac patients who smoke. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 513–520.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Lombard, J. H. (2010). Depression, psychological stress, vascular dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease: Thinking outside the barrel. Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(5), 1025–1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Luft, C. D. B., Sanches, S. D. O., Mazo, G. Z., & Andrade, A. (2007). Brazilian version of the perceived stress scale: Translation and validation for the elderly. Revista de Saúde Pública, 41(4), 606–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lynch, J., & Kaplan, G. (2000). Socioeconomic position. In L. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 13–35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 4(1), 84–99.Google Scholar
  31. Mimura, C., & Griffiths, P. (2004). A Japanese version of the perceived stress scale: Translation and preliminary test. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41(4), 379–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Moscone, F., Tosetti, E., & Vittadini, G. (2016). The impact of precarious employment on mental health: The case of Italy. Social Science & Medicine, 158, 86–95.Google Scholar
  33. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd edn.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  34. Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 264–282.Google Scholar
  35. Pbert, L., Doerfler, L. A., & DeCosimo, D. (1992). An evaluation of the perceived stress scale in two clinical populations. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(4), 363–375.Google Scholar
  36. Pedersen, H., Hansen, C. B., & Mahler, S. (2003). Temporary agency work in the European Union, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin, http://www.fr.eurofound.eu.int/pubdocs/2004/104/en/1/ef04104en. pdf.
  37. Quinlan, M., Mayhew, C., & Bohle, P. (2001). The global expansion of precarious employment, work disorganization, and consequences for occupational health: A review of recent research. International Journal of Health Services, 31(2), 335–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramírez, A. B., Hernández, B. A. S., & Figueiras, S. C. (2007). Relación estructural entre apoyo familiar, nivel educativo de los padres, características del maestro y desempeño en lengua escrita. Revista Mexicana de Investigación Educativa, 12(33), 701–729.Google Scholar
  39. Raubenheimer, J. (2004). An item selection procedure to maximize scale reliability and validity. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30(4), 59–64.Google Scholar
  40. Remor, E. (2006). Psychometric properties of a European Spanish version of the perceived stress scale (PSS). The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 86–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Roberti, J. W., Harrington, L. N., & Storch, E. A. (2006). Further psychometric support for the 10-item version of the perceived stress scale. Journal of College Counseling, 9(2), 135–147.Google Scholar
  42. Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74.Google Scholar
  43. Siqueira Reis, R., Ferreira Hino, A. A., & Romélio Rodriguez Añez, C. (2010). Perceived stress scale: Reliability and validity study in Brazil. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(1), 107–114.Google Scholar
  44. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  45. Vosko, L. F. (2010). Managing the margins: Gender, citizenship, and the international regulation of precarious employment. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Wang, Z., Chen, J., Boyd, J. E., Zhang, H., Jia, X., Qiu, J., & Xiao, Z. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the perceived stress scale in policewomen. PLoS One, 6(12), e28610.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Wongpakaran, N., & Wongpakaran, T. (2010). The Thai version of the PSS-10: An investigation of its psychometric properties. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 4(1), 6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pedagogy Psychology PhilosophyUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations