Heavy-work investment, job engagement, managerial role, person-organization value congruence, and burnout: A moderated-mediation analysis in USA and Israel

  • Edna RabenuEmail author
  • Or Shkoler
  • Mariana J. Lebron
  • Filiz Tabak


The present research investigates the mediational mechanism of Heavy-Work Investment (HWI) between job engagement, managerial roles and work burnout. The paper proposes an expansion to the HWI model (as divided into two dimensions: the investment of time and efforts) by exploring the role of value congruence (between the employees and their workplaces) as a moderator, with a two-study cultural differences perspective. Data from 186 American employees (Study 1) and 221 Israeli employees (Study 2) were collected. Moderated-mediation analyses were employed using PROCESS macro for the SPSS. Among others, we found that job engagement positively associates with HWI, but negatively with burnout. Managerial position was not related to any of the variables in either sample. However, the two HWI dimensions display different relationships with burnout; while the investment of efforts at work shows negative links to burnout, the investment of time does not show any consistent correlations with it. Moreover, support for moderated-mediation model was only found in the Israeli sample.. Implications and future research suggestions are discussed.


Heavy-work investment Job engagement Burnout Managerial position Cultural differences Moderated-mediation 



We would like to express our profound gratitude to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful and helpful comments which considerably contributed to improving the quality of this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethics Statement

The current study was correlational, based on a survey, and not a manipulation on subjects. At the beginning of each questionnaire, we explained the general goal of the research. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. We ensured anonymity and discretion of the results, and also ensured the subjects know they could leave the participation at any time they choose.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edna Rabenu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Or Shkoler
    • 2
  • Mariana J. Lebron
    • 3
  • Filiz Tabak
    • 3
  1. 1.Netanya Academic CollegeNetanyaIsrael
  2. 2.Independent researcherIsrael
  3. 3.Towson UniversityTowsonUSA

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