The positive and negative rumination scale: Development and preliminary validation

  • Hongfei YangEmail author
  • Zhong Wang
  • Jiaxiu Song
  • Jiale Lu
  • Xiaowei Huang
  • Zhaofeng Zou
  • Linhui Pan


Two studies with data from 1671 students are presented describing the development and preliminary validation of the Positive and Negative Rumination Scale (PANRS), a brief measure with 2 s-order factors: Positive Rumination consisting of 2 first-order factors (i.e., Enjoy Happiness and Positive Coping) and Negative Rumination consisting of 3 first-order factors (i.e., Suppress Happiness, Self Deny and Negative Attribution). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the measure’s 5 first-order and 2 s-order factors structure. Moreover, correlation analyses provided first evidence for the subscales’ differential validity: Positive Rumination showed positive correlations with positive indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., life satisfaction) and negative correlations with negative indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., depression), whereas Negative Rumination showed negative correlations with positive indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., life satisfaction) and positive correlations with negative indicators of psychological adjustment (e.g., depression). In addition, all PANRS scores showed satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) and temporal stability (test-retest). Overall the findings suggest that the PANRS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess positive and negative aspects of Rumination.


Positive rumination Negative rumination Life satisfaction Depression 



This study was funded by Zhejiang Provincial Philosophy and Social Science Research Program of China (17NDJC198YB) and Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education Planning Fund (17YJA1900144).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were approved by the Research Committee of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences at Zhejiang University.

Conflict of Interest

We declare that we do not have any commercial or associative interest that represents a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted.


Hongfei Yang has received a grant from Zhejiang Provincial Philosophy and Social Science Research Program of China (17NDJC198YB) and a grant from Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education Planning Fund (17YJA1900144).

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongfei Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhong Wang
    • 2
  • Jiaxiu Song
    • 1
  • Jiale Lu
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Huang
    • 1
  • Zhaofeng Zou
    • 1
  • Linhui Pan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Behavioral SciencesZhejiang UniversityZhejiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.First affiliated hospitalZhejiang UniversityZhejiangChina

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