A clash of constructs? Re-examining grit in light of academic buoyancy and future time perspective

  • Carlton J. FongEmail author
  • Young Won Kim


Grit, defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, has been found to be a powerful predictor of student success and persistence. Yet, it has been a recently scrutinized construct due to weaknesses in its discriminant and predictive validity. To investigate these issues further, we examined grit, its dimensions (perseverance of effort and consistency of interest), and other motivational factors—academic buoyancy and future time perspective—to test whether they were distinct constructs, and whether they were predictors of academic achievement, incorporating individual differences in gender, ethnicity, and major. The current study revealed that grit positively predicted undergraduates’ GPA (N = 328, Mage = 20.88, SDage = 1.70) over and beyond demographic and other motivational variables. Regarding individual differences, men and women differed on subscales of future time perspective, and Asian Americans reported lower grit compared to White and Hispanic students, despite higher GPA compared to Hispanics. The relevance of the findings is discussed along with implications for research and practice.


Grit Academic buoyancy Future time perspective Gender Ethnicity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Curriculum & Instruction, Graduate Program in Developmental EducationTexas State UniversitySan MarcosUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyThe University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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