Bad Behaviors at Work: Spanish Adaptation of the Workplace Deviance Scale
Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) refers to a set of negative intentional behaviors that harm organizational outcomes. Despite their consequences, their measurement is a debatable issue. The present study is aimed to validate the Spanish version of one of the most commonly used scales of CWBs, the Workplace Deviance Scale, and to provide further evidence about the reliability and validity of the test scores. Four hundred and thirty-two employees from different organizations participated in the study. They completed a self-report questionnaire with the measures of interest (sociodemographic data, the Workplace Deviance Scale, and scales of organizational citizenship behavior, organizational justice, integrity, and conscientiousness). Descriptive, exploratory structural equation modeling and correlational analyses were performed. Results have shown that the internal structure does not fully reproduce the original one, but the two theoretically expected factors remain. Furthermore, the pattern of associations is barely influenced by the scoring scheme used (factor vs. observed scores), and the associations with other constructs are in line with previous research. On the whole, this study contributes to the analysis of the dimensionality of CWBs, at least in Western countries.
KeywordsCounterproductive work behaviors Organizational deviance Interpersonal deviance Job performance
The authors would like to acknowledge the Spanish National Plan for R&D, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PSI2013-44854-R project) for support that, in part, assisted the composition of this article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Berry, C. M., Carpenter, N. C., & Barratt, C. L. (2012). Do other-reports of counterproductive work behavior provide an incremental contribution over self-reports? A meta-analytic comparison. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 613–636. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026739.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burke, M. J., Sarpy, S. A., Tesluk, P. E., & Smith-Crowe, K. (2002). General safety performance: A test of a grounded theoretical model. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 429–457. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2002.tb00116.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coffin, B. (2003). Breaking the silence on white collar crime. Risk Management, 50, 8 Retrieved from http://cf.rims.org/Magazine/PrintTemplate.cfm?AID=2090.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (2008). Inventario de personalidad NEO Revisado (NEO PI-R). Inventario NEO reducido de Cinco factores (NEO- FFI). Manual 3ª edición [NEO PI-R revised neo personality inventory and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO- FFI)]. Madrid: TEA.Google Scholar
- Coyne, I., Gentile, D., Born, M. P., Ersoy, N. C., & Vakola, M. (2013). The relationship between productive and counterproductive work behaviour across four European countries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(4), 377–389. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.673280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dávila, M. C., & Finkelstein, M. A. (2010). Predicting organizational citizenship behavior from the functional analysis and role identity perspectives: Further evidence in Spanish employees. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 277–283. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600003851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Díaz-Vilela, L., Díaz-Cabrera, D., Isla-Díaz, R., Hernández-Fernaud, E., & Rosales-Sánchez, C. (2012). Spanish adaptation of the citizenship performance questionnaire by Coleman and Borman (2000) and an analysis of the empiric structure of the construct. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y las Organizaciones, 28(3), 135–149. https://doi.org/10.5093/tr2012a11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fine, S., Horowitz, I., Weigler, H., & Basis, L. (2010). Is good character good enough? The effects of situational variables on the relationship between integrity and counterproductive work behaviors. Human Resource Management Review, 20(1), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.03.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Garrido, L. E., Barrada, J. R., Aguasvivas, J. A., Martínez-Molina, A., Arias, V. B., Golino, H. F., ... & Rojo-Moreno, L. (2018). Is small still beautiful for the strengths and difficulties questionnaire? Novel findings using exploratory structural equation modeling. Assessment. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191118780461.
- González-Navarro, P., Zurriaga-Llorens, R., Tosin, A., & Llinares-Insa, L. I. (2018). Envy and counterproductive work behavior: The moderation role of leadership in public and private organizations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7), 1455. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071455.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hambleton, R. K., Merenda, P., & Spielberger, C. (Eds.). (2005). Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.Google Scholar
- Lievens, F., Corstjens, J., Sorrel, M. A., Abad, F. J., Olea, J., & Ponsoda, V. (2015). The cross-cultural transportability of situational judgment tests: How does a US-based integrity situational judgment test fare in Spain? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 23(4), 361–372. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijsa.12120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malachowski, D. (2005). Wasted time at work costing companies billions. Retrieved from https://apexassisting.com/wasted-time-at-work-costing-companies-billions/ Google Scholar
- Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). Are the emotionally intelligent good citizens or counterproductive? A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and its relationships with organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 116(1), 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Moliner, C., Martinez-Tur, V., Ramos, J., Peiró, J. M., & Cropanzano, R. (2008). Organizational justice and extrarole customer service: The mediating role of well-being at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(3), 327–348. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320701743616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Munene, J. C. (1995). “Not-on-seat”: An investigation of some correlates of organisational citizenship behaviour in Nigeria. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44(2), 111–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1995.tb01069.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Murphy, K. R. (1994). Honesty in the workplace. Pacific Groves: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
- Organ, D. W., & Paine, J. B. (1999). A new kind of performance for industrial and organizational psychology: Recent contributions to the study of organizational citizenship behavior. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 337–368). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
- Peterson, M. H., Griffith, R. L., & Converse, P. D. (2009). Examining the role of applicant faking in hiring decisions: Percentage of fakers hired and hiring discrepancies in single- and multiple-predictor selection. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(4), 373–386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9121-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robinson, S. L. (2008). Dysfunctional workplace behavior. In J. Barling & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The Sage handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 141–159). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
- Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy-capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 66–80. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.87.1.66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2000). Autoeficacia y criterios organizacionales de desempeño [Self-efficacy and organizational performance criteria]. Apuntes de Psicología, 18(1), 179–191.Google Scholar
- Salgado, J. F., Moscoso, S., & Anderson, N. (2013). Personality and counterproductive work behavior. In N. Christiansen & R. Tett (Eds.), Handbook of personality at work (pp. 606–632). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 269–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00049-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, R., Redfern, K., Newman, M. A., & Ferreira-Meyers, K. (2016). If you are emotionally intelligent: The effects of customer-related social stressors on counterproductive work behavior for front-line service employees. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 24(3), 260–271. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijsa.12145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar