The Bifactor Model of the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Jr. MAI)
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Few self-report measures actually exist that were designed to assess school-aged children’s metacognition. This study examined the factor structure and validity of the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Jr. MAI; Sperling et al. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 51–79, 2002) in a sample of primary school children from Singapore. A bifactor model which includes one general factor of metacognition and two uncorrelated knowledge and regulation of cognition group factors yielded the best fit to the data. The general factor of metacognition was found to have high internal consistency and accounted for a greater amount of variance than the two specific factors of knowledge and regulation of cognition. Multigroup analyses offered empirical evidence for the measurement invariance of the bifactor model across gender and ethnic groups. The criterion validity of the model was also demonstrated by significant predictive associations with measures of learning strategies and mathematics achievement. These results provided initial support for the validity and reliability of the Jr. MAI for use with children in the Asian setting. The implications of the findings for future metacognitive research and assessment among children are discussed.
KeywordsMetacognition Bifactor modeling Confirmatory factor analysis Measurement invariance
The author would like to thank Professor David Hogan for allowing us to use the mathematics achievement test items from the Core 2 Research Programme.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was funded by the Office of Education Research, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (OER 38/12 NHK).
Conflict of Interest
Hoi Kwan Ning declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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