Current Psychology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 440–457 | Cite as

An Investigation of Moral Foundations Theory in Turkey Using Different Measures

  • Bilge YalçındağEmail author
  • Türker Özkan
  • Sevim Cesur
  • Onurcan Yilmaz
  • Beyza Tepe
  • Zeynep Ecem Piyale
  • Ali Furkan Biten
  • Diane Sunar


Claims of universality for Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) require extensive cross-cultural validation. The present study aims to (1) develop Turkish versions of three instruments used to research MFT (MFQ, MFQL, MSQ); (2) assess the psychometric properties of the Turkish instruments; (3) test the assumptions of the theory against findings from the instruments in Turkish culture. Three independently translated versions of the MFQ were administered to three samples totaling 1432 respondents. Results were consistent across samples. Internal reliability was satisfactory. CFA indicated a best fit for a 5-factor solution despite low fit indices and high error coefficients. EFA yielded a 3-factor solution, which did not replicate the 2-factor “individualizing” and “binding” factors found in U.S. samples. CFA and EFA with the MSQ produced 2-factor solutions which also did not align with the individualizing-binding dichotomy. Meaningful relations between the moral foundations and scores on political orientation and religiosity supported the validity of the measures in Turkish culture.


Morality Moral foundations Culture Sacredness Liberty 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Türker Özkan has received research grant from Middle East Technical University for this study (grant number: BAP- 07-03-2014-015).


Findings related to Sample 3 were funded by Middle East Technical University (grant number: BAP- 07-03-2014-015).

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Middle East Technical University, Üniversiteler MahallesiAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Nuh Naci Yazgan UniversityKayseriTurkey
  3. 3.İstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Doğuş UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Bahçeşehir UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  6. 6.İstanbul Işık UniversityŞileTurkey
  7. 7.İstanbul Bilgi UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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