Significant Predictors of Henley Passport Index

  • Hilary I. OkagbueEmail author
  • Pelumi E. Oguntunde
  • Sheila A. Bishop
  • Patience I. Adamu
  • Elvir M. Akhmetshin
  • Chukwuemeka O. Iroham


Henley Passport Index (HPI) is a rank on the number of countries a passport holder of a country can travel VISA-free. Countries with high HPI ranking enjoy certain passport privileges. Little is known about the relationship between HPI and other global indices. This paper investigates the relationship between HPI and the trio of Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Global Peace Index (GPI), and World Happiness Report (WHR). The data of the country ranks of the 4 indices were obtained from the respective websites of the publishers of the indices. A final sample of 150 countries was analyzed after the cases of missing values were discarded. The result showed positive correlation between HPI and CPI (r = 0.768, p < 0.0005), GPI (r = 0.671, p < 0.005), and WHR (r = 0.775, p < 0.005), respectively. Regression analysis yielded an equation that showed that a unit increase in the country ranking of CPI, GPI, and WHR of countries increases the ranking of HPI by 0.196, 0.149, and 0.352, respectively. The coefficients of the independent variables are all significant at p value equals 0.05 and the model validation showed the absence of multicollinearity and the presence of small non-significant autocorrelation. The research concluded that countries with high passport privileges also have low corruption instances and conflicts and are perceived to be happy. The implications of this research were discussed.


Henley Passport Index Corruption Perception Index Global Peace Index World Happiness Report Regression analysis Perceived happiness 



  1. Adrian, S. W., & Kroløkke, C. (2018). Passport to parenthood: reproductive pathways in and out of Denmark. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 26(2), 112–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ageeva, O. N., Anoschenkova, S. V., Petrikova, S. V., & Pomnina, S. N. (2016). The ability of civil society to act against corruption. European Research Studies Journal, 19(3), 151–169.Google Scholar
  3. Albayrak, T., Herstein, R., Caber, M., Drori, N., Bideci, M., & Berger, R. (2018). Exploring religious tourist experiences in Jerusalem: the intersection of Abrahamic religions. Tourism Management, 69, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Rimmawi, H., & Butcher, S. (2015). Trends of tourism in Bethlehem, Palestine: 1994-2015. Tourism, 63(3), 317–335.Google Scholar
  5. Armeanu, D. S., Vintilă, G., & Gherghina, S. C. (2017). Empirical study towards the drivers of sustainable economic growth in EU-28 countries. Sustainability, 10(1), 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asongu, S., Tchamyou, V., Asongu, N., & Tchamyou, N. (2018). The comparative African economics of governance in fighting terrorism. African Security, 11(4), 296–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asongu, S. A., Nnanna, J., Biekpe, N., & Acha-Anyi, P. N. (2019). Contemporary drivers of global tourism: evidence from terrorism and peace factors. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 36(3), 345–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bazurto-Gomez, N., Torres, J. C., Gutierrez, R., Chamorro, M., Bulger, C., Hernandez, T., & Guerra-Gomez, J. A. (2019). An information visualization application case to understand the world happiness report. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 847, 44–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattacharyya, S., Burman, R. R., & Paul, S. (2019). The concept of measuring happiness and how India can go the Nordic Way. Current Science, 116(1), 26–28.Google Scholar
  10. Boulton, F., & Louise, N. (2016). Can the health of a nation be correlated to its state of internal peace? Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 32(1), 70–79.Google Scholar
  11. Chand, M. (2019). Brain drain, brain circulation, and the African diaspora in the United States. Journal of African Business, 20(1), 6–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, F., Prytherch, H., Nesbitt, R. C., & Wilder-Smith, A. (2013). HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics. Global Health Action, 6, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, W. (2012). How education enhances happiness: comparison of mediating factors in four East Asian countries. Social Indicators Research, 106(1), 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chim-Miki, A. F., & Domareski-Ruiz, T. C. (2018). Business environment and tourism competitiveness. Journal of Globalization, Competitiveness and Government, 12(2), 79–96.Google Scholar
  15. Corbet, S., O’Connell, J. F., Efthymiou, M., Guiomard, C., & Lucey, B. (2019). The impact of terrorism on European tourism. Ann. Tourism Research, 75, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CPI (2019). Accessed 24 Feb 2019.
  17. Cristina, B., Emilia, T. and Daniela, T. 2007. International migration-challenges to European Union. Romania Within the EU: Opportunities, Requirements and Perspectives, Vol I, pp 46–52.Google Scholar
  18. Czaika, M., & de Haas, H. (2017). The effect of visas on migration processes. International Migration Review, 51(4), 893–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. d’Agostino, G., & Pieroni, L. (2019). Modelling corruption perceptions: evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries. Social Indicators Research, 142(1), 311–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Das, J., & Dirienzo, C. (2010). Tourism competitiveness and corruption: a cross-country analysis. Tourism Economics, 16(3), 477–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dickenson-Jones, G., Hyslop, D., & Vaira-Lucero, M. (2014). Estimating the global costs of violence. Business, Peace and Sustainable Development, 2014(2), 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drehmer, J. E. (2018). Sex differences in the association between countries’ smoking prevalence and happiness ratings. Public Health, 160, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Du, H., & Chi, P. (2016). War, worries, and religiousness. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 444–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Efobi, U., Asongu, S., & Beecroft, I. (2018). Aid, terrorism, and foreign direct investment: empirical insight conditioned on corruption control. International Economic Journal. Scholar
  25. Fatmawati, I., Suman, A., & Syafitri, W. (2018). The impact of FDI, human capital, and corruption on growth in Asian developed and developing countries. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 7(12), 216–221.Google Scholar
  26. Fourie, J., Rosselló-Nadal, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2019). Fatal attraction: how security threats hurt tourism. Journal of Travel Research.
  27. Frey, B. S. (2019). What are the opportunities for future happiness research? International Review of Economics.
  28. Ghosh, S. (2014). A passage to Canada: the differential migrations of South Asian skilled workers to Toronto. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 15(4), 715–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Giménez-Gómez, J.-M., Walle, Y. M., & Zergawu, Y. Z. (2019). Trends in African migration to Europe: drivers beyond economic motivations. Journal of Conflict Resolution. Scholar
  30. GPI (2019). Institute for Economics and Peace. Accessed 21 Feb 2019.
  31. Harpaz, Y. (2013). Rooted cosmopolitans: Israelis with a European passport–history, property, identity. International Migration Review, 47(1), 166–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harpaz, Y. 2018. Compensatory citizenship: dual nationality as a strategy of global upward mobility. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–20. Scholar
  33. Hercog, M., & van de Laar, M. (2017). Motivations and constraints of moving abroad for Indian students. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 18(3), 749–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. HPI (2019). Henley and Passport Partners Holding Limited. Accessed 20 Feb 2019.
  35. Ivanov, S., & Ivanova, M. (2016). Do hotel chains improve destination’s competitiveness? Tourism Management Perspectives, 19, 74–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2016). Religiosity moderates the relationship between income inequality and life satisfaction across the globe. Social Indicators Research, 128(2), 731–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kafashpor, A., Ghasempour Ganji, S. F., Sadeghian, S., & Johnson, L. W. (2018). Perception of tourism development and subjective happiness of residents in Mashhad, Iran. Asia Pacific J. Tourism Research, 23(6), 521–531.Google Scholar
  38. Kang, S., Vogt, C. A., & Lee, S. (2018). Does taking vacations make people happy? A regional disparity perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(11), 1021–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kang’ethe, S. M., & Wotshela, N. (2016). An autopsy of xenophobia and xenophobic attitudes inherent in institutions of higher learning in South Africa. Journal of Social Sciences, 49(1–2), 158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knezackova, R. and Linhartova, V. 2013. The economic openness and its influence on the level of corruption in the Czech Republic. In Proceedings of The 11th International Conference: Economic Policy In The European Union Member Countries, Selected Papers. pp 114–125.Google Scholar
  41. Kollias, C., & Paleologou, S.-M. (2017). The globalization and peace nexus: findings using two composite indices. Social Indicators Research, 131(3), 871–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kollias, C., & Papadamou, S. (2017). Peace and tourism: a nexus? Evidence from developed and developing countries. Singapore Economic Review. Scholar
  43. Kuzey, C., Karaman, A. S., & Akman, E. (2019). Elucidating the impact of visa regimes: a decision tree analysis. Tourism Management Perspectives, 29, 148–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li, R. Y. M., Tang, E. C. H., & Leung, T. H. (2019). Democracy and economic growth. International Journal of Data Analysis Techniques and Strategies, 11(1), 58–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lieven, A. (2017). Against: limiting migration to preserve European social peace. Debating Migration to Europe: Welfare vs Identity, pp. 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lundy, B. D., & Darkwah, K. (2018). Measuring community integration of Lusophone West African immigrant populations through needs assessment, human security, and realistic conflict theory. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 19(2), 513–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Maridal, J. H. (2017). A worldwide measure of societal quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 134, 1–38. Scholar
  48. Markina, I., Safonov, Y., Zhylinska, O., Diachkov, D., & Varaksina, E. (2018). Defining the dimensions of national security, financial security and food supply chain in Ukraine. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 7(6), 608–620.Google Scholar
  49. Mashika, H. V. (2018). Impact of institutional factors on formation of economic development and potential of Carpathian region. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 24(1), 82–89. Scholar
  50. May, M., & Smilde, D. (2016). Minority participation and well-being in majority Catholic nations: what does it mean to be a religious minority? Journal of Religion and Health, 55(3), 874–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meisenberg, G., & Woodley, M. A. (2015). Gender differences in subjective well-being and their relationships with gender equality. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(6), 1539–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Melotti, M., Ruspini, E., & Marra, E. (2018). Migration, tourism and peace: Lampedusa as a social laboratory. Anatolia, 29(2), 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nair, S. (2017). Passport privilege entrenches inequality. Eureka Street, 27(24), 33.Google Scholar
  54. Okagbue, H. I., Iroham, C. O., Peter, N. J., Owolabi, J. D., Adamu, P. I., & Opanuga, A. A. (2018). Systematic review of building failure and collapse in Nigeria. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(10), 1391–1401.Google Scholar
  55. Olanrewaju, F. O., Omotoso, F., & Alabi, J. O. (2018). Datasets on the challenges of forced displacement and coping strategies among displaced women in selected Internally Displaced Persons’ (IDPs) camps in Nigeria. Data in Brief, 20, 152–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Olgiati, A., Calvo, R., & Berkman, L. (2013). Are migrants going up a blind alley? Economic migration and life satisfaction around the world: cross-national evidence from Europe, North America and Australia. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 383–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ortega, B., Casquero, A., & Sanjuán, J. (2016). Corruption and convergence in human development: evidence from 69 countries during 1990–2012. Social Indicators Research, 127(2), 691–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ozaltin, D., Shakir, F., & Loizides, N. (2019). Why do people flee? Revisiting forced migration in post-Saddam Baghdad. Journal of International Migration and Integration. Article in Press.Google Scholar
  59. Paparusso, A. (2019). Studying immigrant integration through self-reported life satisfaction in the country of residence. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 14(2), 479–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Park, P. C. (2017). Chile’s limited passport into the global literary market. Symplokē, 25(1-2), 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Podobnik, B., Shao, J., Njavro, D., Ivanov, P. C., & Stanley, H. E. (2008). Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment. European Physical Journal B, 63(4), 547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Policardo, L., Sanchez Carrera, E. J., & Risso, W. A. (2019). Causality between income inequality and corruption in OECD countries. World Development Perspectives. Scholar
  63. Poprawe, M. (2016). A panel data analysis of the effect of corruption on tourism. Applied Economics, 47(23), 2399–2412. Scholar
  64. Pratt, S., & Liu, A. (2016). Does tourism really lead to peace? A global view. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(1), 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Richmond, O. P., & Mac Ginty, R. (2018). Mobilities and peace. Globalizations. Scholar
  66. Rinzin, C. (2006). On the middle path: the social basis for sustainable development in Bhutan. Nederlandse Geografische Studies, 352, 1–204.Google Scholar
  67. Sanz, M. T., Caselles, A., Micó, J. C., & Soler, D. (2018). A stochastic dynamical social model involving a human happiness index. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 340, 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Seabra, C., Kastenholz, E., Abrantes, J. L., & Reis, M. (2018). Peacefulness at home: impacts on international travel. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 4(4), 413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shao, J., Ivanov, P. C., Podobnik, B., & Stanley, H. E. (2007). Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors. European Physical Journal B, 56(2), 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sriyana, J., Prabowo, H. Y., & Syamsudin, M. (2017). Preventing corruption in the Indonesian public sector. European Research Studies Journal, 20(3), 538–553.Google Scholar
  71. Suzuki, T. (2018). Corruption, interest rates and business cycles: comparison of emerging economies. Economic Change and Restructuring, 51(4), 303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tajaddini, R., & Gholipour, H. F. (2018). Control of corruption and luxury goods consumption. Kyklos, 71(4), 613–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tang, C. F. (2018). The impacts of governance and institutions on inbound tourism demand: evidence from a dynamic panel data study. Asia Pacific J. Tourism Research, 23(10), 1000–1007.Google Scholar
  74. Tang, Y. (2019). Immigration status and adolescent life satisfaction: an international comparative analysis based on PISA 2015. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(5), 1499–1518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vilkova, A. V., & Timofeeva, E. A. (2018). Socio-economic stratification and the penitentiary system. European Research Studies Journal, 21(4), 186–194.Google Scholar
  76. Viveros, M. (2016). Correlation between peace and development. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Global Studies, 11(4), 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Webster, C., & Ivanov, S. (2016). The ideologies of national security and tourist visa restrictions. International Journal of Tourism Policy, 6(3–4), 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. WHR (2019). Accessed 23 Feb 2019.
  79. Wilhem, P. G. (2002). International validation of the corruption perceptions index: implications for business ethics and entrepreneurship education. Journal of Business Ethics, 35(3), 177–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yoon, J., & Klasen, S. (2018). An application of partial least squares to the construction of the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI). Social Indicators Research, 138(1), 61–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yunusa, I. A. M., Zerihun, A., & Gibberd, M. R. (2018). Analysis of the nexus between population, water resources and Global Food Security highlights significance of governance and research investments and policy priorities. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(15), 5764–5775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zabelina, M. I., Nikishkin, V. V., Arefyeva, N. T., Mudrova, S. V., & Cherednichenko, L. G. (2017). Theoretical approaches towards global social development. European Research Studies Journal, 20(2), 338–345.Google Scholar
  83. Zhang, L., & Zhang, J. (2018). Impacts of leisure and tourism on the elderly’s quality of life in intimacy: a comparative study in Japan. Sustainability, 10(12), 4861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilary I. Okagbue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pelumi E. Oguntunde
    • 1
  • Sheila A. Bishop
    • 1
  • Patience I. Adamu
    • 1
  • Elvir M. Akhmetshin
    • 2
  • Chukwuemeka O. Iroham
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Economics and ManagementElabuga Institute of KFU Elabuga Kazan Federal UniversityKazanRussian Federation
  3. 3.Department of Estate ManagementCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria

Personalised recommendations