Advertisement

The Immigrant Mortality Advantage in Canada, 2001 and 2011

  • Frank TrovatoEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study examines differential mortality between immigrant and native-born populations in Canada with respect to eighteen causes of death categories encompassing chronic and external types of mortality over two census periods, 2001 and 2011. The following interrelated questions are addressed: (1) what is the magnitude of the immigrant mortality advantage relative to native-born Canadians? (2) How does it change over time? (3) Is the migrant advantage uniform across all causes of death? (4) Does the advantage for immigrants prevail across all age groups? (5) Are immigrant men and women equally advantaged across causes of death? These queries are explored with multivariate analysis guided by a conceptual framework that specifies differential mortality as a function of nativity factors, health selection, and acculturation effects. It is shown that nativity status exerts a strong independent effect, and that over time, migrants experienced larger reductions in risk than did native-born Canadians. Further analysis revealed support for both health selection and acculturative explanations. Sex differences are found, with male immigrants enjoying a small but significant relative mortality advantage compared to immigrant females. The paper discusses these findings and closes with suggestions for further study.

Keywords

Immigrants Native-born Canada Mortality Causes of death Log-rate model 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The analysis presented in this paper was conducted at the Canada Research Data Centre at the University of Alberta which is part of the Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN).

Funding Information

The services and activities provided by the Research Data Center are made possible by the financial or in-kind support of the SSHRC, the CIHR, the CFI, Statistics Canada, and the University of Alberta.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclaimer

The views expressed in this paper do not necessarily represent the CRDCN’s or that of its partners.

References

  1. Abraido-Lanza, A. F., Dohrenwend, B. P., Ng-Mak, D. S., & Turner, J. B. (1999). The Latino mortality paradox: a test of the salmon bias and healthy migrant hypothesis. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1543–1548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraido-Lanza, A. F., Chao, M. T., & Flórez, K. R. (2005). Do healthy behaviors decline with greater acculturation?:Implications for the Latino mortality paradox. Social Science & Medicine, 61(6), 1243–1255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali, J. (2002). “Mental health of Canada’s immigrants”, Health Reports 13 (Suppl.), 1-11, Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  4. Anand, S., Yusuf, S., Vuksan, V., Devanesen, S., Teo, K. K., et al. (2000). Differences in risk factors, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease between ethnic groups in Canada: the study of health assessment and risk in ethnic groups (SHARE). The Lancet, 356(9226), 279–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antecol, H., & Bedard, K. (2006). Unhealthy assimilation: why do immigrants converge to American health status levels? Demography, 43(2), 337–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold, M., Aarts, M. J., Siesling, S., van der Aa, M., Visser, O., & Coebergh, J. W. (2013). Diverging breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in The Netherlands, 1996–2009. Acta Oncologica, 52(6), 1195–1201.  https://doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2012.742962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balfour, P. C., Ruiz, J. M., Talavera, G. A., Allison, M. A., & Rodriguez, C. J. (2016). Cardiovascular disease in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 4(2), 98–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrera, M. (2000). Social support research in community psychology. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of community psychology (pp. 215–245). New York: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beiser, M. (2005). “The health of immigrants in Canada”, Canadian Review of Public Health, 96 (Supplement 2): S30-S44.Google Scholar
  10. Berkman, L. F., & Glass, T. (2000). Social integration, social networks, social support, and health. In L. F. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social Epidemiology (pp. 137–173). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. M. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  12. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46, 5–34.Google Scholar
  13. Boulogne, R. E., Jougla, E., Breem, Y., Kunst, A. E., & Rey, G. (2012). Mortality differences between the foreign-born and locally-born population in France (2004-2007). Social Science & Medicine, 74, 1213–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brahimi, M. (1980). La mortalite des estrangers en France. Population, 35, 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breton, R. (1964). Institutional completeness of ethnic communities and the personal relations of immigrants. American Journal of Sociology, 70(2), 193–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chadwick, K. A., & Collins, P. A. (2015). Examining the relationship between social support availability, urban center size, and self-perceived mental health of recent immigrants to Canada: a mixed-methods analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 128, 220–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan, J., Ng, E., & Wilkins, R. (1996a). Health expectancy by immigrant status. Health Reports, 8(3), 29–37.Google Scholar
  18. Chan, J., Ng, E., & Wilkins, R. (1996b). The health of Canada’s immigrants in 1994-95. Health Reports, 7(4), 33–45.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, R. S., Rotimi, C. N., & Ward, R. (1999). The puzzle of hypertension in African-Americans. Scientific American, 280(1), 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Creatore, M. I., Moineddin, R., Booth, G., Manuel, D., DesMeules, M., McDermott, S., & Glazier, R. H. (2010). Age- and sex-related prevalence of diabetes mellitus among immigrants to Ontario, Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(8), 781–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Maio, F. G. (2010). Immigration as pathogenic: A systematic review of the health of immigrants to Canada. International Journal of Equity in Health, 9, 27.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-9-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Maio, F. G., & Kemp, E. (2010). The deterioration of health status among immigrants to Canada. Global Public Health, 5(5), 462–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deboosere, P., & Gadeyne, S. (2005). Adult migrant mortality advantage in Belgium: evidence using census and register data. Population (E), 60(5–6), 655–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Delara, M. (2016). “Social determinants of immigrant women’s mental health”, Advances in Public Health, Article ID 9730162, 11 pages,  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9730162
  25. Delavari, M., Sonderlund, A. L., Swinburn, B., Mellor, D., & Renzaho, A. (2013). Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 13, 458 (11 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DesMeules, M., Gold, J., McDermott, S., Cao, Z., Payne, J., Lafrance, B., Vissandjée, B., Kliewer, E., & Mao, Y. (2005). Disparities in mortality patterns among Canadian immigrants and refugees, 1980-1998: Results of a national cohort study. Journal of Immigrant Health, 7, 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Diaz, C. J., Koning, S. M., & Martinez-Donate, A. P. (2016). Moving beyond salmon bias: Mexican return migration and health selection. Demography, 53, 2005–2030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunn, J. R., & Dyck, I. (2000). Social determinants of health in Canada’s immigrant population: results from the national population health survey. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 1573–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Egolf, B., Lasker, J., Wolf, S., & Potvin, L. (1992). The Roseto effect: a 50-year comparison of mortality rates. American Journal of Public Health, 82(8), 1089–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fenelon, A. (2013). Revisiting the Hispanic mortality advantage in the United States: the role of smoking. Social Science & Medicine, 82, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia-Perez, M. (2016). Health outcomes, immigration, and development. American Economic Review: Papers & Proeceeding 2016, 106(5), 461–466.Google Scholar
  32. Gillum, R. F. (1999). Stroke mortality in blacks: disturbing trends. Stroke, 30, 1711–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gillum, R. F. (2001). The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in black Americans. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1597–1599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gray, L., Harding, S., & Reid, A. (2007). Evidence of divergence with duration of residence in circulatory disease mortality in migrants to Australia. European Journal of Public Health, 17(6), 550–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guillot, M., Khlat, M., Elo, I., Solignac, M., & Wallace, M. (2018). Understanding age variations in the migrant mortality advantage: an international comparative perspective. PlosOne, 13(6), e0199669.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gupta, M., & Brister, S. (2010). Is south Asian ethnicity an independent cardiovascular risk factor? Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 22(3), 193–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Health Canada (2010). Health policy research bulletin. Special issue, Migration Health: Embracing a Determinants of Health Approach, (December), Issue 17, Ottawa: Minister of Health Canada.Google Scholar
  38. House, J. S., Landis, K., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu, F. B. (2003). The Mediterranean diet and mortality---olive oil and beyond. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348(26), 2595–2596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ikram, U. Z., Mackenbach, J. P., Harding, S., Rey, G., Bhopal, R. S., Regidor, E., Rosato, M., Juel, K., Stronks, K., & Kunst, A. E. (2016). Cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe. European Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 655–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2018). Canada - permanent residents by age and source area, excel data sheet. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/2fbb56bd-eae7-4582-af7d-a197d185fc93. Accessed 17 Feb 2018.
  42. Jasso, G., Massey, S. D., Rosenzweig, M. R., & Smith, J. P. (2004). Immigrant health: Selectivity and acculturation. In N. B. Anderson (Ed.), Critical perspectives on racial and ethnic differences in health in late life (pp. 227–266). Washington: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  43. Jurado, D., Alarcon, R. D., Martinez-Ortega, J. M., Mendieta-Marichal, Y., Gutierrez-Rojas, L., & Gurpegui, M. (2016). Factors associated with psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations across the world. Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental (Barc.), 10(1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kasl, S. V., & Berkman, L. L. (1983). Health consequences of the experience of migration. Annual Review of Public Health, 4, 69–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kawachi, I., & Berkman, L. (2000). Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In L. F. Berkman & I. Kawachi (Eds.), Social Epidemiology (pp. 174–190). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kennedy, S., Kidd, M. P., McDonald, J. T., & Biddle, N. (2015). The healthy immigrant effect: patterns and evidence from four countries. International Migration & Integration, 16, 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Keyfitz, N. (1977). What difference would it make if cancer were eradicated? An examination of the Taeuber paradox. Demography, 14(4), 411–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Khlat, M. (1993). Mortalité des Levantins en Australie. Population, 48(4), 1072–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khlat, M., & Courbage, Y. (1995). La mortalité et les causes de deces des Marocains en France 1979 á 1991. II: Les causes de deces. Population, 50(2), 447–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khlat, M., & Darmon, N. (2003). Is there a Mediterranean migrants mortality paradox in Europe? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32(6), 115e1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kliewer, E. (1992). Epidemiology of diseases among migrants. International Migration, 30, 141–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kliewer, E. (1994). Homicide victims among Australian immigrants. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 18(3), 304–309.Google Scholar
  53. Kliewer, E. V., & Smith, K. R. (1985). Breast cancer mortality among immigrants in Australia and Canada. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 87(15), 1154–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kliewer, E., & Ward, R. H. (1988). Convergence of immigrant suicide rates to those in the destination country. American Journal of Epidemiology, 127(3), 640–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kobayashi, K. M., & Prus, S. G. (2012). Examining the gender, ethnicity, and age dimensions of the healthy immigrant effect: factors in the development of equitable health. International Journal of Equity Health, 11(8), 1–6.Google Scholar
  56. Laird, N., & Olivier, D. (1981). Covariance analysis of censored survival data using log-linear analysis techniques. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 76(374), 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Larson, M. G. (1984). Covariate analysis of competing-risks data with lo-linear models. Biometrics, 40(2), 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee, E. S. (1966). A theory of migration. Demography, 3(1), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leung, L. A. (2014). Health and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants. Health Economics, 23, 1411–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lutsey, P., Diez Roux, A. V., Jacobs, D. R., Burke, G. L., Harman, J., Shea, S., & Folsom, A. R. (2008). Associations of acculturation and socioeconomic status with subclinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1963–1970.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.123844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Malenfant, E. C. (2004). Suicide in Canada’s immigrant population. Health Reports, 15, 9–17.Google Scholar
  62. Markides, K. S., & Eschbach, K. (2005). Aging, migration, and mortality: current status of research on the Hispanic paradox. Journal of Gerontology B. Psychology and Social Sciences, 60(2), 68–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marmot, M. G., & Syme, L. S. (1976). Acculturation and coronary heart disease in Japanese-Americans. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104(3), 225–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McDermott, S., DesMeules, M., Lewis, R., Gold, J., Payne, J., Lafrance, B., Vissandjée, B., Kliewer, E., & Yang, M. (2011). Cancer incidence among Canadian immigrants, 1980–1998: results from a National Cohort Study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(1), 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McDonald, J. T., & Kennedy, S. (2004). Insights into the “healthy immigrant effect”: health status and health service use of immigrants to Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 59(8), 1613–1627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McDonald, J. T., Farnworth, M., & Liu, Z. (2017). Cancer and the healthy immigrant effect: a statistical analysis of cancer diagnosis using a linked census-cancer registry administrative database. BMC Public Health, 17, 296.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4190-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moran, A., Roux, A. V., Jackson, S. A., Kramer, H., Manolio, T. A., Shrager, S., et al. (2017). Acculturation is associated with hypertension in a multiethnic sample. American Journal of Hypertension, 20, 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nair, C., Nargundkar, M., Johansen, H., & Strachan, J. (1990). Canadian cardiovascular disease mortality: first generation immigrants versus Canadian born. Health Reports, 2(3), 203–228.Google Scholar
  69. Newbold, K. B. (2006). Chronic conditions and the healthy immigrant effect: evidence from Canadian immigrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(5), 765–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Newbold, B. (2009). The short-term health of Canada's new immigrant arrivals: evidence from LSIC. Ethnicity & Health, 14(3), 315–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Newbold, K. B., & Danforth, J. (2003). Health status and Canada’s immigrant population. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 1981–1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Newbold, K. B., & Neligan, D. (2012). Disaggregating Canadian immigrant smoking behaviour by country of birth. Social Science & Medicine, 75, 997–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ng, E. (2011). The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates. Health Reports, 22, 25–29.Google Scholar
  74. Olshansky, S. J., & Ault, B. A. (1986). The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: the age of delayed degenerative diseases. Milbank Quarterly, 64, 355–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Omariba, W. R., Ng, E., & Vissandjée, B. (2014). Differences between immigrants at various durations of residence and host population in all-cause mortality, Canada 1991-2006. Population Studies, 68(3), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Omran, A. R. (1971). The epidemiological transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. The Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 49, 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Otero-Sabogal, R., Sabogal, R., Perez-Stable, E. J., & Hiatt, R. A. (1995). Dietary practices, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior: ethnic, sex, and acculturation differences. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 18, 73–82.Google Scholar
  78. Palloni, A., & Arias, E. (2004). Paradox lost: explaining the Hispanic adult mortality advantage. Demography, 41, 385–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Perez, C.E. (2002), “Health status and health behaviour among immigrants”, Supplement to Health Reports, (13), Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  80. Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2008). People like us: ethnic group density effects on health. Ethnicity and Health, 13(4), 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Polednak, A.P. (1989), Racial and ethnic differences in disease. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Powles, J.W. (1990), The best of both worlds: attempting to explain the persisting low mortality of Greek migrants to Australia, in What we know about health transition, J. Caldwell et al. (eds.), Health Transition Series (2), Canberra, Australia, pp. 584-594.Google Scholar
  83. Preston, S. H., Heuveline, P., & Guillot, M. (2001). Demography: measuring and modeling population processes. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  84. Quadros, I. K., Coomes, E., Bajaj, R. R., Finken, L. R., Sharieff, W., Bagai, A., Mehdi, N. B., & Cheema, A. N. (2014). Awareness of cardiovascular risk factors among immigrants and non-immigrants in Canada – a survey study. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 30(10), S13.Google Scholar
  85. Rana, A., de Souza, R. J., Kandasamy, S., Lear, S. A., & Anand, S. S. (2014). Cardiovascular risk among south Asians living in Canada: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ Open, 2(3), E183–E911.  https://doi.org/10.9778/cmajo.20130064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Redelmeier, D. A., Katz, D., Lu, H., & Saposnik, G. (2011). Roadway crash risks in recent immigrants. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(6), 2128–2133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saposnik, G., Redelmeier, D. A., Fuller-Thomson, H. L. E., Lonn, E. M., & Ray, J. (2010a). Risk of premature stroke in recent immigrants (PRESARIO): population-based matched cohort study. Neurology, 74, 451–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Saposnik, G., Redelmeier, D. A., Lu, H., Fuller-Thomson, E., Lonn, E. M., & Ray, J. (2010b). Myocardial infarction associated with recency of immigration to Ontario. Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians, 103(4), 253–258.  https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcq006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sharma, R. D., Mikalowski, M., & Verma, R. B. P. (1990). Mortality differentials among immigrant populations in Canada. International Migration, 28(4), 443–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sheth, T., Nair, C., Nargundkar, M., et al. (1999). Cardiovascular and cancer mortality among Canadians of European, south Asian and Chinese origin from 1979 to 1993: an analysis of 1.2 million deaths. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 161(2), 132–138.Google Scholar
  91. Spallek, J., Arnold, M., Rzaum, O., Juel, K., et al. (2012). Cancer mortality patterns among Turkish immigrants in four European countries and in Turkey. European Journal of Epidemiology, 27, 915–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stafford, M., Newbold, B. K., & Ross, N. A. (2010). Psychological distress among immigrants and visible minorities in Canada: a contextual analysis. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57, 428–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Statistics Canada (2014). National Household Survey (NHS) - Main Survey – 2014 National Household Survey Test (Field Procedures Test). http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/survey/household/5178
  94. Statistics Canada, CANSIM database (2016). Table 051-0001, Estimates of population, by age group and sex for July 1, Canada, provinces and territories, annual. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=510001. Accessed 9 May 2016.
  95. Statistics Canada CANSIM database (2017a). Table 102–0529 - Deaths, by cause, Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system (I00 to I99), age group and sex, Canada, annual. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a05?lang=eng&id=1020529. Accessed 27 March 2017.
  96. Statistics Canada CANSIM database (2017b). Table 102–0522 - Deaths, by cause, Chapter II: Neoplasms (C00 to D48), age group and sex, Canada, annual. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/pick-choisir?lang=eng&p2=33&id=1020522. Accessed 27 March 2017.
  97. Statistics Canada, CANSIM database (2018). Table 102-0540 - Deaths, by cause, Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01 to Y89), age group and sex, Canada, annual. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/aae5c658-b1fb-43e5-b49a-ce1e39676484. Accessed 24 March 2018.
  98. Subedi, P. R., & Rosenberg, M. (2014). Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 115, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tenkorang, E. Y. (2017). Early onset of type 2 diabetes among visible minority and immigrant populations in Canada. Ethnicity and Health, 22(3), 266–284.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2016.1244623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Teppala, S., Shankar, A., & Ducatman, A. (2010). The association between acculturation and hypertension in a multiethnic sample of US adults. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 4(5), 236–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tobler, W. R. (1995). Migration: Ravenstein, Thornthwaite, and beyond. Urban Geography, 16(4), 327–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Trichopoulou, A., Tina, C., Bamia, C., & Trichopoulos, D. (2003). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348(26), 2599–25608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Trovato, F., & Jarvis, G. K. (1986). Immigrant suicide in Canada: 1971 and 1981. Social Forces, 65, 433–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Trovato, F., & Odynak, D. (2011). Sex differences in life expectancy in Canada: immigrant and native-born populations. Journal of Biosocial Science, 43(3), 353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Turra, C. M., & Elo, I. T. (2008a). The impact of salmon bias on the Hispanic mortality advantage. Population Research and Policy Review, 27(5), 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Turra, C. M., & Elo, I. T. (2008b). The impact of salmon bias on the Hispanic mortality advantage: new evidence from Social Security Data. Population Research and Policy Review, 27, 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Tran, T. (1987). Ethnic community supports and psychological well-being of Vietnamese refugees. International Migration Review, 21(3), 833–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. van den Brandt, P. A. (2011). The impact of a Mediterranean diet and healthy lifestyle on premature mortality in men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, 913–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vandenheede, H., Willaert, D., De Grande, H., Simoens, S., & Vanroelen, C. (2015). Mortality in adult immigrants in the 2000s in Belgium: a test of the ‘healthy-migrant’ and the ‘migration-as-rapid-health-transition’ hypotheses. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 20(12), 1832–1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vang, Z. M., Jennifer, S., Astrid, F., & Gagnon, A. (2016). Are immigrants healthier than native-born Canadians? A systematic review of the healthy immigrant effect in Canada. Ethnicity & Health, 3, 1–33.Google Scholar
  111. Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., & Valle, J. R. (1987). Migration and mental health: an empirical test of depression risk factors among immigrant Mexican women. International Migration Review, 21(3), 512–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wallace, M. (2016). Adult mortality among the descendants of immigrants in England and wales: does a migrant mortality advantage persist beyond the first generation? Journal of Ethic & Migration Studies, 42(9), 1558–1577.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2015.1131973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wallace, M., & Kulu, H. (2013). Migration and health in England and Scotland: a study of migrant selectivity and Salmon bias. Population Space & Place.  https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1804.
  114. Wallace, M., & Kulu, H. (2014a). Low immigrant mortality in England and Wales: a data artefact? Social Science & Medicine, 120, 100–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wallace, M., & Kulu, H. (2014b). Mortality among immigrants in England and Wales by major causes of death, 1971: a longitudinal analysis of register-based data. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang, L., & Hu, W. (2013). Immigrant health, place effect and regional disparities in Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 98, 8–17.Google Scholar
  117. World Health Organization (2019). Health topics: tobacco. https://www.who.int/topics/tobacco/en/.
  118. Yi, S. S., Beasley, J. M., Kwon, S. C., Huang, K.-Y., Trinh-Shevrin, C., & Wylie-Rosett, J. (2016). Acculturation and activity behaviors in Chinese American immigrants in New York City. Preventive Medicine Reports, 4, 404–409.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.08.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Young, C. M. (1987). Migration and mortality: the experience of birthplace groups in Australia. International Migration Review, 21(3), 531–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zadravec, Š. N., Podlogar, T., Kerr, D. C. R., & De Leo, D. (2017). Community social support as a protective factor against suicide: a gender-specific ecological study of 75 regions of 23 European countries. Health and Place, 48, 40–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations