Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Integration Problem Ahead
- 444 Downloads
In this study, the Syrian refugees’ integration problems are examined, and the main challenges such as learning the tongue, finding jobs, housing, education, and vulnerability to abuse are analyzed. Moreover, some measures for social integration were proposed. Because of the civil war that broke out in Syria in 2011, many Syrians had to leave their homes and find shelter in neighboring countries. Turkey applied an open door policy from the beginning and received an influx of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers. Turkey is now de facto home to over 3.5 million registered Syrians, along with non-registered ones. Refugee influx has initially been regarded as temporary and Syrian refugees are seen as “guests.” Especially after the influx in 2014–2015, however, the positive emotions began gradually fading and some started to pronounce refugees as “overstaying guests.” Eventually, perspectives have shifted from short-term protection and humanitarian assistance to longer-term social and economic integration of Syrian refugees. Long-term integration and settlement of the refugees necessitate a comprehensive, unified, and rigorous approach. It also requires greater cooperation between policymakers, practitioners, and civil society organizations in different areas such as employment, education, and health. In addition, it calls robust international cooperation and support.
KeywordsSyrian refugees Integration Turkey
JEL ClassificationF22 H53 J15
- Berti, B. (2015). The Syrian Refugee Crisis: Regional and Human Security Implications. Strategic Assessment, 17(4), 41–53.Google Scholar
- Bertossi, C. (2011). National Models of Integration in Europe: a Comparative and Critical Analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(12), 1561–1580.Google Scholar
- Bevelander, P. (2016). Integrating refugees into labor markets: economic integration of refugees into their host country is important and benefits both parties. IZA World of Labor 2016, 269, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Ceccarelli, M. (2016). Providing the integration of refugees into foreign societies. Armun 2016 Research Report: General Assembly, 6, 1–10.Google Scholar
- Crawford, V. (2016). 10 ways countries can help refugees integrate. Available from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/05/10-ways-countries-can-help-refugees-integrate/. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Dedeoğlu, N. (2016). Foreword. In: war, migration and health; experience of Turkey, Turkish Medical Association Publications.Google Scholar
- DGMM (2018) Göç İstatistikleri. Available from http://www.goc.gov.tr/icerik/goc-istatistikleri_363_378. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Emin, M. N. (2016). Türkiye’deki Suriyeli Çocukların Eğitimi Temel Eğitim Politikaları. SETA Siyaset, Ekonomi ve Toplum Araştırmaları Vakfı, 153, 1–48.Google Scholar
- Erdoğan, M. M. (2015). Syrians in Turkey: social acceptance and integration research. Hacettepe University Migration and Politics Research Center-HUGO Publications.Google Scholar
- Erdoğdu, M. M., & Akar, S. (2018). Education and health externalities of Syrian refugees in Turkey: threats and opportunities. La Revista Información Comercial Española, las Migraciones Euromediterráneas. Impacto socioeconómico y políticas (Special Issue: Euro-Mediterranean Migration Congress). Enero-Febrero, 900, 29–42.Google Scholar
- Girgin, S. Z. S., & Cebeci, T. G. (2017). The effects of an immigration policy on the economic integration of migrants and on natives’ attitudes: the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 11(4), 1044–1050.Google Scholar
- İçduygu, A., & Şimşek, D. (2016). Syrian refugees in Turkey: towards integration policies. Turkish Policy Quarterly, 15(3), 59–69 Available from http://turkishpolicy.com/article/828/syrian-refugees-in-turkey-towards-integration-policies. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- ICG (2018a). Integrating Syrian refugees in Istanbul’s “District of Victimhood”, commentary / Europe & Central Asia, International Crisis Group, Available from https://www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/western-europemediterranean/turkey/integrating-syrian-refugees-istanbuls-district-victimhood. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- ICG (2018b). Turkey’s Syrian refugees: defusing metropolitan tensions, Europe Report No: 248, International Crisis Group, Available from https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/248-turkey-s-syrian-refugees.pdf. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Kaya, C. (2016). Türk Sığınma Hukukunda Suriyeli Sığınmacıların Çalışma Hakları. In P. Yazgan & F. Tilbe (Eds.), Türk Göçü 2016, Seçilmiş Bildiriler – 1 (pp. 35–42). London: Transnational Press London.Google Scholar
- Kaya, A., & Kıraç, A. (2016). Vulnerability Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Istanbul, Supporttolife, Available from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/54518. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Kirişçi, K. (2014). Syrian refugees and Turkey’s challenges: going beyond hospitality. Wahington, DC: Brookings Institution Available from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Syrian-Refugees-and-Turkeys-Challenges-May-14-2014.pdf. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Korkmaz, A. (2016). Suriyeli Sığınmacılardan Kaynaklanan Sorunlar ve Çözüm Önerileri. Akademik Hassasiyetler, 3(6), 83–116.Google Scholar
- Kuhlman, T. (1990). The economic integration of refugees in developing countries: a research model. Series Research Memoranda No. 1990–35, pp 1–28.Google Scholar
- Orhan, O., & Gündoğar, S. S. (2015). Suriyeli Sığınmacıların Türkiye'ye Etkileri. Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies Report No: 195.Google Scholar
- ORSAM (2016). Türkiye’deki Suriyeli Mülteciler: Uzun Vadeli Entegrasyon İçin Firsatlar ve Zorluklar. Toplantı Değerlendirmesi, Ortadoğu Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi, No: 1, 1–24.Google Scholar
- Ott, E. (2013). The Labour Market Integration of Resettled Refugees, PDES/2013/16, UNHCR. Available from http://www.unhcr.org/research/evalreports/5273a9e89/labour-market-integration-resettled-refugees.html. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Özdemir, S. C. (2016). Geçici Koruma Sağlanan Suriye’li Yabancıların Çalışma Esasları. Mali Çözüm, July–August, 279–285.Google Scholar
- Pennix, R. (2003). Integration: the role of communities, institutions, and the state. Migration Policy Institute. Available from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/integration-role-communities-institutions-and-state. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Sari, B., Koçak, H., & Çalışkan, C. (2017). (2017). Syrian refugees in Turkey, life conditions. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(Suppl. 1), 80–81.Google Scholar
- Shah, A. (2008). Immigration, Global Issues. Available from http://www.globalissues.org/article/537/immigration. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Sijbrandic, M., Acartürk, C., Bird, M., Bryant, R. A., … Cuijpers, P. (2017). Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: integrating scalable psychological interventions in eight countries, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8, Issue sup2: Traumatized Refugees.Google Scholar
- Simonsen, K. B. (2017). Does citizenship always further immigrants’ feeling of belonging to the host nation? A study of policies and public attitudes in 14 Western democracies. Comparative Migration Studies, 5(1), 3 Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331101/. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Taşar, M. O. (2018). The impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on labor markets and unemployment in Turkey. In L. Markovic & D. D. Çevik (Eds.), Society, Culture, National Identity, & Immigration. Londra: IJOPEC Publication.Google Scholar
- Tunç, A. Ş. (2015). Mülteci Davranışı ve Toplumsal Etkileri: Türkiye’deki Suriyelilere İlişkin Bir Değerlendirme. Turkish Journal of TESAM Academy, 2(2), 29–63.Google Scholar
- Turkish Medical Association (2016). Savaş, Göç ve Sağlık. The Turkish Medical Association Publications, Ankara, ISBN 978–605-9665-01-8.Google Scholar
- UNCHR (2018). Refugee situations. Available from http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- UNHCR (2016). Global Appeal 2015 Update: Turkey. Available from http://www.unhcr.org/publications/fundraising/5461e60c52/unhcr-global-appeal-2015-update-turkey.html. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- UNICEF (2017). Syria crisis: April 2017 humanitarian results. Available from http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNICEF%20Syria%20Crisis%20Situation%20Reportas%20of%20April%202017.pdf. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- UNICEF (2018). Syria crisis, humanitarian results. Available from https://www.unicef.org/iraq/UNICEF_Syria_Crisis_Humanitarian_Situation_Report-_May_2018.pdf. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Wijaya, R. A. (2016). Integration of refugees into Society. Available from https://medium.com/@audityawijaya/integration-of-refugees-into-society-835d454cdae9. Accessed 05 Nov 2018.
- Yavuz, Ö. (2015). The legal and ethical foundations of health assistance to Syrian refugees in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 12(30), 265–280.Google Scholar
- Yavuz, Ö., & Mızrak, S. (2016). Education of school-age children in emergencies: the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. Migration Journal, 3(2), 175–199.Google Scholar