Advertisement

Impacts of Vocational Training for Socio-economic Development of Afghan Refugees in Labor Markets of Host Societies in Baluchistan

  • Aziz AhmedEmail author
Article
  • 217 Downloads

Abstract

Afghan refugees have been living for 35 years, since the start of the imposed war on Afghanistan in 1979, in host societies of Baluchistan and other parts of Pakistan. Repatriation has been started, yet no study has been conducted to explore their labor market skill acquisition for impacting their socio-economic status in the host communities. This paper examines vocational training of Afghan refugees impacting upon their socio-economics of earnings, employability, labor market-evolved perceptions about livelihood earnings, discrimination, and working aptitude in local markets of selected districts of Baluchistan. Field survey from a sample of 157 vocationally trained individuals has been conducted through a full-fledged questionnaire by using two-stage stratified sampling techniques to produce the first ever labor market data for Afghan refugees. Descriptive analysis shows cascading impacts of vocational training for socio-economic development of Afghan refugees. The findings of frequency distribution highlight that vocational skills have positive impacts upon earnings, employment status, and working aptitudes. The results also show discrimination, constraints in earnings and employability, career counseling, lower educational level, and tough competition for Afghan refugees for getting socio-economic benefits in the labor markets of host communities. The findings may be helpful for giving insights to policy formulation and recommendations for Afghans’ repatriation program to Afghanistan and recent waves of immigrants and refugee influx and accommodations faced by South Asian and European countries these days.

Keywords

Afghan refugees Labor markets Socio-economic development Vocational training 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The supportive assistance of the International Center for Refugee and Migration Studies (ICRMS) established at BUIT Quetta is acknowledged for this study.

References

  1. Ahmed, A., & Muhammad, W. (2017). The Labor Market Cohesion of Afghan Refugees in Baluchistan. Conference Proceedings of 1st ICRMS. BUITEMS, Quetta.Google Scholar
  2. Angenendt, S., Koch, A., & Meier, A. (2016). Development cooperation and addressing ‘root causes’ of migration. Forced Migration Review, 52, 29.Google Scholar
  3. Assembly, U. G. (2016). New York declaration for refugees and migrants. UN Doc. A/71/L, 1, 13.Google Scholar
  4. Aziz, N. A. (2016). Managing migration in the Eastern Mediterranean: challenges and opportunities. IEMed Mediterranean Yearbook, 2016, 109–112.Google Scholar
  5. Bilecen, B., Gamper, M., & Lubbers, M. J. (2017). The missing link: social network analysis in migration and transnationalism. Social Networks.Google Scholar
  6. Borthakur. (2017). Afghan refugees: the impact on Pakistan. Asian Affairs, 48(3), 488–509.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2017.1362871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brunello, G., Lodigiani, E., & Rocco, L. (2017). Does low skilled immigration cause human capital polarization? Evidence from Italian Provinces.Google Scholar
  8. Ceritoglu, E., Yunculer, H. B. G., Torun, H., & Tumen, S. (2017). The impact of Syrian refugees on natives’ labor market outcomes in Turkey: evidence from a quasi-experimental design. IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 6(1), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Czaika, M., & Parsons, C. R. (2017). The gravity of high-skilled migration policies. Demography, 54(2), 603–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dustmann, C., & Görlach, J.-S. (2016). Estimating immigrant earnings profiles when migrations are temporary. Labour Economics, 41(1–8), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frege, C. M. (2018). Migration and employment relations.Google Scholar
  12. Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hammerstad, A. (2000). Whose security? UNHCR, refugee protection and state security after the Cold War. Security dialogue, 31(4), 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hatton, T. J. (2017). Public opinion on immigration in Europe: preference versus salience.Google Scholar
  15. Heisler, B. S. (2000). The sociology of immigration. Migration theory: talking across disciplines. New York, 80–84.Google Scholar
  16. Khan, A. (2017). Afghan Refugees in Pakistan. Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad, 1–7.Google Scholar
  17. Mora, M. T., Dávila, A., & Rodríguez, H. (2016). Education, migration, and earnings of Puerto Ricans on the island and US mainland: impact, outcomes, and consequences of an economic crisis. Migration Studies, mnw032.Google Scholar
  18. Moretti, S. (2016). UNHCR and the migration regime complex in Asia-Pacific: between responsibility shifting and responsibility sharing.Google Scholar
  19. Patt, A., Ruhose, J., Wiederhold, S., & Flores, M. (2017). International emigrant selection on occupational skills. Retrieved fromGoogle Scholar
  20. Portes, A. (1995). The economic sociology of immigration: essays on networks, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship : Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  21. Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E., & Haller, W. J. (2002). Transnational entrepreneurs: an alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation. American Sociological Review, 67, 278–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reitz, J. G. (2001). Immigrant skill utilization in the Canadian labour market: implications of human capital research. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2(3), 347–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schomburg, H. (2016). Carrying out tracer studies: guide to anticipating and matching skills and jobs: volume 6. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  24. The United Nations (2016). The 1951 Refugee Convenstion. Available online at web-links: http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49da0e466.html and http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/refugees/. Accessed 10/08/2018.
  25. UNHCR (2017b). UNHCR, The Refugee Agency Pakistan. Information Documents. Avalable at weblink: https://unhcrpk.org//key-information/. Accessed 10/08/2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.BUITEMSQuettaPakistan

Personalised recommendations