Advertisement

Return Intentions of Bolivian Migrants During the Spanish Economic Crisis: the Interplay of Macro-Meso and Micro Factors

  • Sònia ParellaEmail author
  • Alisa Petroff
Article

Abstract

The economic crisis in the Spanish context has played a significant role in explaining the dynamics of return migration in recent years. Based on a qualitative approach, we argue that macro-structural elements in the receiving context operate only as triggers in the decision to return. Instead, factors linked to the micro-meso levels and their interplay with the structural context illuminate key variables that allow us to identify different meanings and strategies to plan the return. The interaction of these determinants with the economic crisis leads to three types of circumstances. For some migrants, the return is a premature closure of the migratory project. For others, the return disrupts their migratory project, while for the third profile, this decision is unreachable due to economic limitations. Beyond the empirical contribution, the paper reveals the need to include the interplay of different levels of analysis (macro-meso and micro dimensions) taking into account the temporal dimension of the migratory process (stages before, during, and after migration), rarely present in the studies of return patterns.

Keywords

Return migration Return intentions Spain Bolivia Economic crisis 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO), Government of Spain, under Grant number CSO2013-40834-R. It was conducted at Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain) Department of Sociology.

References

  1. Adda, J., Dustmann, C. and Mestres, J. (2006). A dynamic model of return migration. Working paper, Mimeo, disponible online www.iza.org/conference_files/SUMS2006/mestres_j2653.pdf.
  2. Agadjanian, V., Gorina, E., & Menjívar, C. (2014). Economic incorporation, civil inclusion, and social ties: Plans to return home among central Asian migrant women in Moscow, Russia. International Migration Review, 48, 577–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ammasari, S. and Black, R. (2001). Harnessing the potential of migration and return to promote development: Applying concepts to West Africa. IOM Migration Research Series, No. 5. Geneva: IOM, disponible online: www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/serial _publications/mrs_5_2001.pdf.
  4. Baby-Collin, V., & Cortés, G. (2014). New trends in Bolivian migratory fields in the face of the crisis. Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals, 106-107: 61–83.Google Scholar
  5. Bastia, T. (2007). From mining to garment workshops: Bolivian migrants in Buenos Aires. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(4), 655–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bastia, T. (2011a). Should I stay or should I go? Return migration in times of crises. Journal of International Development, 23(4), 583–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bastia, T. (2011b). Migration as protest? Negotiating gender, class, and ethnicity in urban Bolivia. Environment and Planning, 43, 1514–1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassarino, J.-P. (2004). Theorising return migration: The conceptual approach to return migrants revisited. International Journalon Multicultural Societies, 6(2), 243–279.Google Scholar
  9. Cassarino, J.-P. (2014). A case for return preparedness. In G. Battistella (Ed.), Global and Asian perspectives on international migration pp. 153–166. Geneva: IOM/Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Castles, S., & Ozkul, D. (2014). Circular migration, triple win, or a new label for temporary migration? In G. Battistella (Ed.), Global and Asian Perspectives on International Migration, pp. 27–50. Geneva: IOM/Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Cobo, S. (2008). Cómo entender la movilidad ocupacional de los migrantes de retorno? Una propuesta de marco explicativo para el caso mexicano. Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, 23(1), 159–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colectivo Ioé. (2012). Impactos de la crisis sobre la población inmigrante. Madrid: OIM, disponible online http://www.colectivoioe.org/uploads/0bae582aa3b0842a9 eaf50cde16f4f97d9527bcb.pdf.
  13. Constant, A., & Massey, D. (2003). Self-selection, earnings, and out-migration: A longitudinal study of immigrants to Germany. Journal of Population Economics, 16(4), 631–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curran, S., & Rivero-Fuentes, E. (2003). Engendering migrant networks: The case of Mexican migration. Demography, 40(2), 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davanzo, J., & Morrison, P. (1981). Return and other sequences of migration in the United States. Demography, 18(1), 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Domingo, A., & Sabater, A. (2013). Crisis económica y emigración: la perspectiva demográfica, en Anuario de la Inmigración en España (edición 2012 ed.) pp. 62–89. Barcelona: CIDOB.Google Scholar
  17. Durand, J., & Massey, D. (2003). Clandestinos. Migración México-Estados Unidos en los albores del siglo XXI. México (DF): Miguel Ángel Porrúa Librero Editor.Google Scholar
  18. Elder Jr., G. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course social. Psychology Quarterly, 57(1), 4–15.Google Scholar
  19. Faist, T. (1997). The crucial meso-level. In T. Hammar, G. Brochmann, K. Tamas, & T. Faist (Eds.), International migration, immobility and development, 187–217. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  20. Fransen, S. (2017). The socio-economic sustainability of refugee return: Insights from Burundi, (September 2015).  https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.1976.
  21. Gadea, E., Roberto, B., & Germán, Q. (2009). Bolivianos en Argentina y en España: De la migración tradicional a las nuevas rutas. AREAS. Revista Internacional de Ciencias Sociales, 28, 30–43.Google Scholar
  22. Glick Schiller, N., & Salazar, N. B. (2013). Regimes of Mobility across the Globe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(2), 183–200.Google Scholar
  23. Grasmuck, S., & Pessar, P. (1991). Between two islands: Dominican international migration. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gualda, E. (2012). Migración circular en tiempos de crisis: mujeres de Europa del Este y africanas en la agricultura de Huelva. Papers, 97(3), 1–28.Google Scholar
  25. Harris, J., & Todaro, M. (1970). Migration, unemployment, and development: A two-sector analysis. American Economic Review, 60(1), 126–142.Google Scholar
  26. Hinojosa, A. (2008). España en el itinerario de Bolivia. Migración transnacional, género y familia en Cochabamba. In S. Novick (Ed.), Las migraciones en América Latina, pp. 93–112. Buenos Aires: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO).Google Scholar
  27. ILO. (2012). Spain aproves new regulations for domestic employees on the legislative reform. Development in Law and Practices 2012, Geneva: ILO. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_protect/@protrav/@travail/documents/publication/wcms_173686.pdf.
  28. Jáuregui, J. and Recaño, J. (2014). Una aproximación a las definiciones, tipologías y marcos teóricos de la migración de retorno, Biblio 3W. Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales 19(1084).Google Scholar
  29. Jeffery, L., & Murison, J. (2011). Guest Editorial: The temporal, social, spatial and legal dimensions of return and onward migration. Population, Space and Place, 17(2), 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jensen, P., & Pedersen, P. (2007). To stay or not to stay? Out-migration of immigrants from Denmark. International Migration, 45(5), 87–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King, R. (2002). Towards a new map of European migration. Population, Space and Place, 8(2), 89–106.Google Scholar
  32. King, K., & Newbold, B. (2008). Return immigration: The chronic migration of Canadian immigrants, 1991, 1996 and 2001. Population, Space and Place, 14, 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuschminder, K. (2017). RSCAS 2017/31 taking stock of assisted voluntary return from Europe: Decision making, reintegration and sustainable return – Time for a paradigm shift.Google Scholar
  34. Ministerio de Empleo and Seguridad Social (MEYSS). (2009–2016). Datos de retorno voluntario. Madrid: MEYSS, disponible online: http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/Retorno_voluntario/datos/index.html] Consulta 1/05/2015.
  35. Nekby, L. (2006). The emigration of immigrants, return vs. onward migration: Evidence from Sweden. Journal of Population Economics, 19, 197–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Parella, S. (2013). Bolivian migrants in Spain: Transnational families from a gender perspective. In L. Oso & N. RibasMateos (Eds.), Handbook on Gender, Migration and Transnationalism, pp. 312–336. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parella, S., & Petroff, A. (2014). Migración de retorno en España: salidas de inmigrantes y programas de retorno en un contexto de crisis en Anuario de la inmigración en España Inmigración y emigración: mitos y realidades. Barcelona: CIDOB.Google Scholar
  38. Ravuri, E. (2014). Return migration predictors for undocumented Mexican immigrants living in Dallas. The Social Science Journal, 51, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reagan, P., & Olsen, R. (2000). You can go home again: Evidence from longitudinal data. Demography, 37(3), 339–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rivera, L. (2013). Migración de retorno y experiencias de reinserción en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México. REMHU: Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, XXI(41), 55–76.Google Scholar
  41. Rivera, L. (2015). Movilidades, circulaciones y localidades. Desafíos analíticos del retorno y la reinserción en la ciudad. Alteridades, 25(50), 51–63.Google Scholar
  42. Ruben, R., Van Houte, M., & Davids, T. (2009). What determines the embeddedness of forced-return migrants? Rethinking the role of pre- and post-return assistance. Google Scholar
  43. Stark, O. (1991). The migration of labor. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Vega Solís, C., & Martínez-Buján, R. (2016). Las migraciones de retorno de la población ecuatoriana y boliviana: motivaciones, estrategias y discursos. Investigaciones Feministas 265 ISSN: 2171-6080, 7(1), 265–287.  https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_INFE.2016.v7.n1.51725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversidad Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations