The Diversity of Gateways: Accra, Cape Town and Mauritius as Hinges in Oil and Gas GPNs
- 2 Downloads
Research that stands in the tradition of the world city literature has made essential contributions to our understanding of ‘gateways’. Being logistics and transport hubs, sites of industrial processing, places of corporate control and service provision as well as locations of knowledge generation, gateways are an intermediate step between the periphery and the core of the world economy. They integrate peripheral places into global production networks. Yet, the state of the art insufficiently captures the functional diversity of gateways. This article makes a corresponding contribution. The author analyses how Accra, Cape Town and Mauritius interlink the African oil and gas sector globally. It is shown that corporate control of Ghana’s upstream sector concentrates in Accra, whereas logistics and upstream service provision happen in close proximity to oil and gas fields, in the town of Takoradi. Cape Town has established itself as a logistics and services gateway to sub-Saharan Africa. It also provides critical knowledge to overseas firms that seek to invest in the region. Mauritius pursues an ambitious strategy to become a logistics hub. It already serves as a gateway for financial and technical services. Against the backdrop of such diversity, the author furthermore calls the notion of gateways as sites of highly sophisticated service provision into question. His research ties up with policy recommendations made by the State of African Cities 2018 report and recent debates on generalisation in Urban Studies.
KeywordsAccra Cape Town Gateway Mauritius Oil and gas sector
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
- A Barrel Full. (2014a). Tweneboa Enyenra and Ntomme Ten oil and gas fields. http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/tweneboa-enyenra-and-ntomme-ten-oil-and-fields. Accessed 17 April 2019.
- A Barrel Full. (2014b). Jubilee oil field. http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/jubilee-oil-field. Accessed 17 April 2019.
- A Barrel Full. (2017a). Tema refinery. http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/tema-refinery. Accessed 17 April 2019.
- A Barrel Full. (2017b). Caltex Capetown refinery. http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/caltex-capetown-refinery. Accessed 3 April 2019.
- A Barrel Full. (2019). Offshore Cape Three Points gas field. http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/offshore-cape-three-points-gas-field. Accessed 17 April 2019.
- Africa Report. (2013). Is Mauritius a tax haven?. https://www.theafricareport.com/5249/is-mauritius-a-tax-haven. Accessed 8 April 2019.
- Amin, A., & Thrift, N. (2002). Cities: Reimagining the urban. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, E., Derudder, B., Parnreiter, C., Pelupessy, W., Taylor, P. J., & Witlox, F. (2010). World city networks in global commodity chains: towards a world-systems’ integration. In B. Derudder & F. Witlox (Eds.), Commodity chains and world cities (pp. 15–41). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Business Day. (2018). Ghana’s Tema oil refinery seeks state bailout after lenders say no to loans. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/world/africa/2018-06-26-ghanas-tema-oil-refinery-seeks-state-bailout-after-lenders-say-no-to-loans. Accessed 16 April 2019.
- Engineering News. (2016). Ghana oil refinery showing signs of profitability. http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/ghanaian-oil-refinery-showing-signs-of-profitability-2016-09-02. Accessed 16 April 2019.
- Engineering News. (2018). Sinopec commits to R6bn upgrade of Chevron South Africa refinery as buyout deal gathers pace. http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/print-version/competition-commission-grants-conditional-approval-for-sinopecs-900m-chevron-sa-buy-2018-01-11. Accessed 5 April 2019.
- Financial Times. (2017). Mauritius struggles with tax haven crackdown. https://www.ft.com/content/e37d1df6-8436-11e7-94e2-c5b903247afd. Accessed 12 April 2019.
- Government Information Service [of Mauritius]. (2016). Oil storage terminal project will propel Mauritius into next phase of development, says PM. http://www.govmu.org/English/News/Pages/Oil-Storage-Terminal-project-will-propel-Mauritius-into-next-phase-of-development,-says-PM.aspx. Accessed 14 April 2019.
- Grant, R. (2008). Globalizing city: the urban and economic transformation of Accra, Ghana. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
- Grant, R. (2011). Accra: a globalizing city. In B. Derudder, M. Hoyler, P. J. Taylor & F. Witlox (Eds.), International handbook of globalization and world cities (pp. 455–464). Cheltenham: Elgar.Google Scholar
- Heritage Foundation. (2017). 2017 index of economic freedom. http://www.heritage.org/index/pdf/2017/book/index_2017.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2019.
- Hunt, T. (2014). Ten cities that made an empire. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- MPA. (2011). Corporate plan 2012–2014. http://www.mauport.com/sites/default/files/public/corporate_plan_2012.pdf. Accessed 12 April 2019.
- Parnreiter, C. (2010). Global cities in global commodity chains: exploring the role of Mexico City in the geography of global economic governance. In B. Derudder & F. Witlox (Eds.), Commodity chains and world cities (pp. 43–64). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Parnreiter, C. (2015). Managing and governing commodity chains: the role of producer service firms in the secondary global city of Hamburg. Die Erde, 146(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
- Parnreiter, C., Haferburg, C., & Oßenbrügge, J. (2013). Shifting corporate geographies in global cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as case studies. Die Erde, 144(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
- Price, M., & Benton-Short, L. (Eds.). (2008). Migrants to the metropolis: the rise of immigrant gateway cities. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
- Republic of Mauritius. (2016). Three year strategic plan: 2017/18 to 2019/2020. http://budget.mof.govmu.org/budget2017-18/2017_183-YearPlan.pdf. Accessed 15 April 2019.
- Robinson, J. (2006). Ordinary cities: between modernity and development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Scholvin, S. (2017). Das Tor nach Sub-Sahara Afrika?: Kapstadts Potenzial als Gateway City für den Öl- und Gassektor. Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, 61(2), 80–95.Google Scholar
- Scholvin, S. (2019). Rebalancing research on world cities: Mauritius as a gateway to sub-Saharan Africa. In S. Scholvin, A. Black, J. Revilla Diez & I. Turok (Eds.), Value chains in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges of integration into the global economy (pp. 205–220). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
- Scholvin, S., Breul, M., & Revilla Diez, J. (2019). Revisiting gateway cities: connecting hubs in global networks to their hinterlands. Urban Geography, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2019.1585137.
- UN Habitat. (2018). The state of African cities 2018: the geography of African investment. https://unhabitat.org/books/the-state-of-african-cities-2018-the-geography-of-african-investment. Accessed 18 Aug 2019.
- World Bank. (2017). Doing business 2017: equal opportunity for all. http://www.doingbusiness.org/~/media/WBG/DoingBusiness/Documents/Annual-Reports/English/DB17-Report.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2019.
- World Economic Forum. (2017). The global competitiveness report 2017–2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GCR2017-2018/05FullReport/TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2017%E2%80%932018.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2019.