Academic Questions

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 94–104 | Cite as

Perceptions of Gender, Race, and Anti-Conservative Discrimination on Campus

  • Hal R. ArkesEmail author
  • George W. DentJr

Scholarly research has adduced various levels of racism, sexism, and anti-conservative discrimination on college campuses, though there is considerable debate regarding the frequency and intensity of each transgression type.1Although there are theoretical papers and qualitative research on each category of discrimination, we could find no empirical studies comparing the pervasiveness of discrimination against individuals who possess all three targeted demographic characteristics (non-White, female, conservative). The modest number of studies of universities that have compared perceived discrimination against race/ethnicity and gender have generally found that racial discrimination is the more virulent form of discrimination, confirming the “ethnic-prominence hypothesis” that racial or ethnic discrimination is more prevalent and insidious than gender discrimination. But no research has been conducted in which the relative intensities of gender, racial, and ideological discrimination...



The authors wish to thank the National Association of Scholars for partial funding of this study. A draft of this manuscript with additional statistical analyses is available on the Social Science Research Network:

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Case Western Reserve University School of LawClevelandUSA

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