Coping Strategies of Older Adults Survivors Following a Disaster: Disaster-Related Resilience to Climate Change Adaptation
- 15 Downloads
Understanding resilience involved in the capability of older adult disaster survivors in coping and dealing with one natural disaster to another has been the focal point of several studies. However, there has been little discussion on older adult survivors’ coping strategies following a disaster. This qualitative study explored the coping strategies using a cross-case analysis to surpass disaster experiences. A purposive sample of 26 older adults’ survivors who had experienced typhoon, without experience, with family, and without family were interviewed using a focus group discussion. Four themes were generated: ‘Understanding one’s culture generates resilience that can turn huge impact in coping with disaster’, ‘Holding on to their faith by praying or acting practically during adversities still promotes adaptation’, ‘Gaining previous experiences is crucial to the positive outcome’, ‘Getting social support or not promotes adaptation’. These concepts are connected with each other, and the relationship of these factors facilitates the rebuilding of the older adults’ lives. These findings provide valuable insights for Local Government Units and healthcare professionals in supporting and promoting positive mindset activities, cultural identity, social network, and spiritual care among older adult survivors.
KeywordsCulture Disaster resilience Disaster risk Social support Older adults
Special thanks to the village leaders in Tacloban, Leyte, and older adults who took part in the study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All Authors declares no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual respondents included in the study.
Ethical Treatment of Experimental Subjects (Animal and Human)
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Almazan, J., Cruz, J., Alamri, M., Alotaibi, J., Albougami, A., Gravoso, R., … Ghose Bishwajit, G. (2018). Predicting patterns of disaster-related resiliency among older adult Typhoon Haiyan survivors. Geriatric Nursing.Google Scholar
- Alcayna, T., Bollettino, V., Dy, P., & Vinck, P. (2016). Resilience and disaster trends in the Philippines: opportunities for national and local capacity building. PLoS Currents, 8.Google Scholar
- Ballesteros, M., & Domingo S. (2015). Building Philippine SMEs resilience to natural disasters Philippine institute for development studies. Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-20 (Revised).Google Scholar
- Baudot, C. (2016). The right move: Ensuring durable relocation after typhoon Haiyan’, 2014. OXFAM CASE STUDY Relief Web. http://policypractice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/the-right-move-ensuring-durable-relocation-after-typhoon-haiyan-316093. Accessed April 30, 2016.
- Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: study design and implementation for novice researchers the qualitative report. 13:544–559. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf
- Cassell, C, & Symon, G. (1994). Qualitative methods in organizational research, a practical guide. In Catherine Cassell & Gillian Symon (Eds.), London: Sage. pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
- Cherniack, E. P. (2008). The impact of natural disasters on the elderly. American Journal of Disaster Medicine, 3(3), 133–139.Google Scholar
- Creswell, J.W. (1995). Qualitative inquiry and research design choosing among five traditions. Sage Publication. Retrieved from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~bilge/private/Creswell98-Ch8-DataAnalysis.pdf
- Docena, P. S. (2015). Adaptive coping, resilience, and absence of anxiety among displaced disaster survivors. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 48(2), 27–49.Google Scholar
- Esipisu, I. (2016). Traditional weather prediction incorporated into Kenyan forecasts. Thomson Reuters Foundation. www.trust.org/item/?map=traditional-weatherprediction-incorporated-into-kenyan-forecasts.Accessed 9 February 2016.
- European Commission’s Directorate (2017). China - Flood (China National Commission for Natural Disaster Reduction, CMA, Local Media) (ECHO Daily Flash of 4 July 2017). Retrieved 44 July 2017 from https://reliefweb.int/report/china/china-flood-china-national-commission-natural-disaster-reduction-cma-local-media-echo
- Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology Journal., 29(2), 75–91.Google Scholar
- International Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent (2014). World Disaster Report focus on culture and risk. http://www.ifrc.org/Global/Documents/Secretariat/201410/WDR%202014.pdf. Accessed 16 October 2014.
- Kamberelis, G., & Dimitriadis, G. (2005). Qualitative Inquiry. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.Google Scholar
- Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2009). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Lassi, S., & Mugnaini, D. (2015). Role of religion and spirituality on mental health and resilience. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17(3), 661–663.Google Scholar
- Magesa, L. (2015). African spirituality and the environment: some principles, theses, and orientations. Hekima Review, 53, 119–128.Google Scholar
- Morse, J. M.,& Field, P. A. (1996). Nursing research: the application of qualitative approaches. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Mungcal I. (2011). International NGOs Appeal for Emergency Aid for Drought-hit East Africa. The development Newswire. Retrieved from https://www.devex.com/news/international-ngos-appeal-for-emergency-aid-for-drought-hit-east-africa-75283. Accessed 6 July 2016.
- Ostadtaghizadeh, A., Ardalan, A., Paton, D., Khankeh, H., & Jabbari, H. (2016). Community disaster resilience: a qualitative study on Iranian concepts and indicators. Research Letter Natural Hazards, 83, 1843–1861.Google Scholar
- Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Polusny, M., Kumpula, M., Meis, L., Erbes, C., Arbisi, P., Murdoch, M. P., Forbes, K., & Johnson, A. (2014). Gender differences in the effects of deployment-related stressors and pre-deployment risk factors on the development of PTSD symptoms in National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 49, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rajeev, M. M. (2016). Post disaster issues and challenges of elderly populations in India: experiences from natural disasters. Social Science, 2(3), 1–4.Google Scholar
- Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Save the Children, Humanitarian Coalition (2016). Hurricane Matthew Haiti - October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016 from https://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/hurricane-matthew-haiti-october-2016
- Tafere, M. (2013). Towards building a culture of disaster resilience at an early age. Contextual integration of disaster risk reduction in the Ethiopian primary education curricula. Retrieved from WVI’s Resilience CoP Website: www.wvcentral org/community/resilienceGoogle Scholar
- Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Yamagata, A. (2016). Urban resilience assessment: multiple dimensions, criteria, and indicators. Urban resilience part of the series. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications, 259–276.Google Scholar
- Zaffina, S., Camisa, V., Monducci, E., Vinci, M. R., Vicari, S., & Bergamaschi, A. (2014). A PTSD prevalence and associated risk factors after a fire disaster that broke out in a paediatric hospital: a cross-sectional study. La Medicina del Lavoro, 105, 163–173.Google Scholar