Advertisement

Scientific Ethos and Foundations of Conscious Activity

Abstract

Clarification of the scientific ethos provides the opportunity to reconstruct the foundations on which the conscious activity in science is based. Contemporary scientific society does not fully recognize this metaphysical issue because of the domination of the power of naturalistic argument. The ethos of science does not show its natural embodiment; it is the complex of social and psychological norms, which rules each scientist unconsciously. Embodiment of the scientific ethos in Wittgenstein and Husserl exhibits metatheoretical prerequisites for critique of the theory presented by Robert Merton. The phenomenological approach offered by Husserl helps to visualize the scientific ethos. The analytical approach developed by Wittgenstein allows enriching this procedure. Interaction of these approaches provides disclosure of scientific mind for representation of conscious activity within science. The author maintains four theses. I. The form of attributive proposition cannot express scientific ethos, thereby, scientific ethos cannot be actually universalistic. II. The scientific ethos demands disclosure of metaphysical perspective of understanding, and it cannot lead to ordinary social forms of interaction. III. The phenomenology of scientific ethos is a branch of metaphysical studies that presupposes the correspondence between personal experiences and extraordinary forms of communication. IV. Contradictions in the scientific ethos are necessary, and they demand the corresponding theory for the explanation. Thesis (I) opens a way to interpretation of a scientific ethos as the semi-formalized description of the bases of science. It discloses new way for psychological understanding of scientific activity. The science is a complex of propositions on the base of the extra-rational assumptions of the nature of knowledge. Thesis (II) discloses options of understanding of this nature. Theses (III) and (IV) provide investigations of a metaphysical origin of scientific knowledge, namely, irremovable contradictions and wisdom as elements of the general scientific ethos.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

References

  1. Ally, M. (2012). Ecologizing Sartre’s ontology: Nature, science, and dialectics. Environmental Philosophy, 9(2), 95–121. https://doi.org/10.5840/envirophil20129217.

  2. Alter, T., & Walter, S. (2007). Phenomenal concepts and phenomenal knowledge: New essays on consciousness and physicalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  3. Anderson, R. E. (1982). Speech imagery is not always faster than visual imagery. Memory and Cognition, 10(4), 371–380. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03202429.

  4. Aristotle. 350BC/1928. The Works of Aristotle (Vol. VIII). Edited by W. Ross. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

  5. Arroyo, C. 2009. The role of feelings in Husserl's ethics. Idealistic Studies 39(1/3): 11–22. https://doi.org/10.5840/idstudies2009391/310.

  6. Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  7. Baddeley, A. D., & Lewis, V. (1981). Inner active processing in Reading: The inner voice, the inner ear, and the inner eye. In A. Lesgold & C. A. Perfetti (Eds.), Interactive processes in reading (pp. 107–129). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  8. Baker, L. R. (1995). Explaining attitudes: A practical approach to the mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  9. Block, N. (1983). Mental pictures and cognitive science. Philosophical Review, 93(4), 499–542.

  10. Brown, M. W. (2010). The life-world as moral world: Vindicating the life-world en route to a phenomenology of the virtues. Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique, 6(3), 1–25.

  11. Bruzina, R. 2010. Husserl’s “naturalism” and genetic phenomenology. New Yearbook for Phenomenology & Phenomenology Philosophy 10(1): 91–125. 10/nyppp2010104.

  12. Burch, M. I. (2013). The existential sources of phenomenology: Heidegger on formal indication. European Journal of Philosophy, 21(2), 258–278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0378.2010.00446.x.

  13. Casement, W. (1988). Husserl and philosophy of history. History and Theory, 27(3), 229–240. https://doi.org/10.2307/2504919.

  14. Chalmers, D. (1993). Connectionism and compositionality: Why Fodor and Pylyshyn were wrong. Philosophical Psychology, 6(3), 305–319. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089308573094.

  15. Christensen, A.-M. (2004). Wittgenstein and ethical norms: The question of ineffability visited and revisited. Florianópolis, 3(2), 121–134.

  16. Churchland, P. M. (1981). Eliminative materialism and the propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy, 78(2), 67–90. https://doi.org/10.2307/2025900.

  17. Collins, A. 1987. The Nature of Mental Things. Notre dame: Notre Dame University Press.

  18. Coltheart, V. (1999). Phonological codes in Reading comprehension, short-term memory, and memory for rapid visual sequences. In V. Coltheart (Ed.), Fleeting memories cognition of brief visual stimuli (pp. 181–225). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

  19. Conant, J. 1989. Must We Show What We Cannot Say? In R. Flemming, & M. Payne (eds.) The Senses of Stanley Cavell. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.

  20. Crowell, S. (1995). Heidegger’s phenomenological decades. Management World, 28(4), 435–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01273742.

  21. Dahlstrom, D. O. (1994). Heidegger's method: Philosophical concepts as formal indications. The Review of Metaphysics, 47(4), 775–795. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004250206794.

  22. Davidson, D. (1974). Belief and the basis of meaning. Synthese, 27(3–4), 309–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00484597.

  23. Guerrero, María C.M. de 2005. Inner speech – L2 : thinking words in a second language. New York: Springer science+business media, Inc.

  24. Dennett, D. (1969). Content and consciousness. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  25. Devitt, M. 1996. Coming to Our Senses: A Naturalistic Program for Semantic Localism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  26. Dilthey, W. 1907/1954. The Essence of Philosophy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

  27. Doria, N. G. (2009). No more than conjectures: Popper and the ethics of scientific Enterprise. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43(2), 116–125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12124-008-9086-3.

  28. Evans, G. (1982). The varieties of reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  29. Field, H. (1978). Mental Representation. Erkenntnis, 13(1), 9–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00160888.

  30. Flanagan, O. (1992). Consciousness Reconsidered. Cambridge, mass. The MIT Press.

  31. Geach, P. (1957). Mental acts: Their content and their objects. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  32. Glazebrook, T. 2000. Heidegger’s philosophy of science (perspectives in continental philosophy). New York: Fordham University Press.

  33. Heidegger, M. (1927/1967). Sein und Zeit. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

  34. Husserl, E. (1900). Logische Untersuchungen (Bd. 1) [Logical Ivestigations. Vol. 1]. Leipzig: Verlag von Veit & Comp.

  35. Husserl, E. 1911/1987. Philosophie als strenge Wissenschaft. [Philosophy as Rigorous Science]. In E. Husserl, Gesammelte Werke, Bd. XXV, 30–67. Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff.

  36. Husserl, E. (1931). Méditations cartésiennes. [Cartesian Meditations]. Paris: Colin.

  37. Husserl, E. 1977. Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie. Erstes Buch: Allgemeine Einführungin die reine Phänomenologie (Bd. 1). [ideas for a pure phenomenology and phenomenological philosophy. First book: General introduction to pure phenomenology] the Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

  38. Hutto, D. D. (2003). Wittgenstein and the end of philosophy: Neither theory nor therapy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  39. Jackson, F. (1982). Epiphenomenal Qualia. The Philosophical Quarterly, 32(127), 127–136. https://doi.org/10.2307/2960077.

  40. Johnston, D. (2009). Propositions and propositional acts. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 39(3), 435–462. https://doi.org/10.1353/cjp.0.0056.

  41. Konopka, A. (2008). A renewal of Husserl’s critique of naturalism. Environmental Philosophy, 5(1), 37–59. https://doi.org/10.5840/envirophil20085127.

  42. Kremer, M. (2002). Mathematics and meaning in Tractatus. Philosophical Investigations, 25, 272–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9205.00175.

  43. Kriegel, U. (2011). The sources of intentionality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  44. Kripke, S. (1975). Outline of theory of truth. The Journal of Philosophy, 72(19), 695–717. https://doi.org/10.2307/2024634.

  45. Kurtz, P. (1969). Phenomenology and naturalism. Journal of the History of Philosophy, 7(1), 74–77. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1358246113000027.

  46. Merton, R. K. (1973). The sociology of science. Theoretical and empirical investigations. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

  47. Moran, D. (2008). Husserl’s transcendental philosophy and the critique of naturalism. Continental Philosophy Review, 41, 401–425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11007-008-9088-3.

  48. Papineau, D. (1987). Reality and representation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

  49. Peucker, H. (2008). From logic to the person: An introduction to Edmund Husserl's ethics. The Review of Metaphysics, 62(2), 307–325.

  50. Piaget, J. (1926). The language and thought of the child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  51. Popper, K. (1959/2002). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London and New York: Routledge.

  52. Pylyshyn, Z. (1979). The rate of ‘mental rotation’ of images: A test of a holistic analogue hypothesis. Memory and Cognition, 7(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196930.

  53. Ricœur, P. 1966/2014. The later Wittgenstein and the later Husserl on language. Études Ricœuriennes / Ricœur Studies 5(1): 28–48. https://doi.org/10.5195/errs.2014.245.

  54. Sartre, J.-P. 1940. L'Imaginaire: Psychologie phénoménologique de l'imagination. [the imaginary: A phenomenological psychology of the imagination]. Paris: Gallimard.

  55. Sartre, J.-P. 1943. L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique. [Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology ]. Paris: Gallimard.

  56. Searle, J.R. 1992. The Rediscovery of the Mind. Cambridge, mass.: The MIT Press.

  57. Siewert, C. (1998). The significance of consciousness. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  58. Sokolov, A. N. (1972). Inner speech and thought. New York: Plenum.

  59. Spengler, O. 1926. The Decline of the West. Translated by C. F. Atkinson. New York: A. A. Knopf.

  60. Tarski, A. (1944). The semantical concept of truth and the foundations of semantics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 4, 341–375. https://doi.org/10.2307/2102968.

  61. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

  62. Wagner, H. (1972). Husserl and historicism. Social Research, 39(4), 696–719.

  63. Wittgenstein, L. (1922). Tractatus Logico-philosophicus. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  64. Wittgenstein, L. 1953/1968. Philosophical Investigations (3d ed.). Translated by G. Anscombe. New York: Macmillan.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Sergey B. Kulikov.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/ or Animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kulikov, S.B. Scientific Ethos and Foundations of Conscious Activity. Integr. psych. behav. 54, 158–178 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12124-019-09483-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Conscious activity
  • Propositional attitudes
  • Psychology of knowledge
  • Social body of science
  • Wittgenstein
  • Husserl
  • Merton