Social and Economic Impacts of International Marriages in Europe
The effect of international marriage - a union between a country native and an immigrant - on social and family outcomes is endogenous due to the selection into marriage markets and non-random spousal choice. In this paper we use availability of cheap airline flights as region-specific instrumental variable that increased the probability of intermarriage in Europe. The two-stage least squares analysis applied to 1977–2006 IPUMS International Project Census micro data shows no significant difference in the family size or number of children between intermarried and same-nativity couples. However, it does reveal higher labor force participation rates and much lower marriage rates among mixed nationality couples.
KeywordsInternational marriage European Union Labor force participation Cohabitation
JEL ClassificationJ10 Demographic Economics F22 International Migration F61 Economic Impacts of Globalization
We are grateful to Thomas Hyclak and Mengcen Qian, as well as Keshar Ghimire, the participants of 41st Eastern Economic Association Meeting and Lehigh University Economics Seminars for their insightful comments.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
There are no potential conflicts of interest. All mistakes are our own.
- Becker G (1974) A Theory of Marriage. In Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, ed. TW Schultz, Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press: 299-344Google Scholar
- Bleakley H, Chin A (2010) Age at arrival, English proficiency, and social assimilation among US immigrants. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2(1):165–192Google Scholar
- Esteve, A., J. Garcia and R. McCaa (2011) Comparative perspectives on marriage and international migration, 1970-2000: findings from IPUMS-international census Microdata samples. In Seminar on global perspectives on marriage and international migration, 20–21Google Scholar
- Greenwood J, Guner N, Kocharkov G, Santos C (2014) Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality. Am Econ Rev 104(5):348-353Google Scholar
- Lanzieri, G. (2012) Mixed Marriages in Europe, 1990–2010. In Cross-Border Marriage: Global Trends and Diversity, 81–121. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (KIHASA)Google Scholar
- Terza J, Basu A, Rathouz P (2008) Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling. J Health Econ 27(3):531–543Google Scholar