The Missing Mechanism of Harm in Consensual Sexually Expressed Boyhood Relationships with Older Males: Further Thoughts Associated with O’Carroll (2018)

  • David L. RiegelEmail author


There are at least two assumptions about childhood sexuality that are not supported by either empirical data or rational logic. One of these, childhood innocence, has recently been addressed by O’Carroll. Another, the assumption that psychosocial harm is the inevitable outcome of sexual experiences between younger/older persons, is revisited by examining a sampling of the relevant literature over time, principally in the area of boy/older male relationships, including earlier foundational victimology papers. The issues of this missing intrinsic harm mechanism are examined, and alternative extrinsic mechanisms of harm are proposed and considered.


Intrinsic harm Extrinsic harm Coincidental harm Iatrogenic harm Nocebogenic harm Boy/older male sexually expressed relationship 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors, therefore informed consent is not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent ResearcherPhiladelphiaUSA

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