Advertisement

Sexuality & Culture

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 292–309 | Cite as

The Relationship of Hispanic Cultural Factors and Sexual Behaviors of Hispanic Men Who Have Sex with Men

  • Joseph P. De SantisEmail author
  • Karina A. Gattamorta
  • Beatriz Valdes
  • Michael Sanchez
  • Elias Provencio-Vasquez
Original Paper
  • 91 Downloads

Abstract

Hispanics are the largest ethnic minority group in the U.S. and account for 21% of new cases of HIV infection. Previous researchers have examined the relationship of Hispanic cultural factors and the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men who have sex with men (HMSM). However, the exact influence of Hispanic culture factors on the sexual behaviors of these men is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected Hispanic cultural factors and the sexual behaviors of a sample of HMSM. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 125 Hispanic men in Miami-Dade County, FL. Participants completed standardized measures of Hispanic cultural factors, sexual behaviors, and a demographic questionnaire. Statistically significant positive correlations were noted between age and total cultural constructs, familism, personalism, and machismo. Statistically significant negative correlations were noted between education and total cultural constructs, and education and fatalism. No statistically significant correlation coefficients were noted between total cultural constructs and total sexual behaviors. However, statistically significant positive correlations were noted between condom use and personalism, and assertiveness and personalism. A statistically significant negative correlation was noted between familism and anal sex. Nurses and other clinicians providing care for HMSM need awareness of certain Hispanic cultural factors (personalism and familism) that may be related to sexual behaviors among HMSM. More research is needed to understand how personalism and familism may be used as protective factors to decrease sexual risk of HMSM.

Keywords

Culture Gay men Hispanics Sexual behaviors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This publication was made possible by support from the Center for AIDS Research at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine funded by Grant (P30AI073961) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), J. De Santis, PI. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number 1P60MD00266-01, J. De Santis, PI. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the University of Miami and/or national research committees, and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and later amendments of comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants in this study.

References

  1. Adam, B. D., Betancourt, G., & Serrano-Sanchez, A. (2011). Development of an HIV prevention and life skills program for Spanish-speaking gay and bisexual newcomers to Canada. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 20(1–2), 11–17.Google Scholar
  2. Adam, B. D., & Rangel, J. C. (2017). Migration and sexual health among gay Latino migrants to Canada. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 42(4), 403–424.Google Scholar
  3. Almaguer, T. (1993). Chicano men: A cartography of homosexual identity and behavior. In H. Abelove, M. A. Barale, & D. M. Halperin (Eds.), The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader (pp. 255–273). New York, NY: Rutledge.Google Scholar
  4. Antshel, K. M. (2002). Integrating culture as a means of improving treatment adherence in the Latino population. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 7(4), 435–449.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1354850021000015258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caitlin, R., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J. (2009). Family rejection as a predictor of health outcomes in White and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, 123(1), 346–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrillo, H. (2004). Sexual migration, cross-cultural sexual encounters, and sexual health. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 1(3), 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2015). HIV among Hispanics/Latinos. Atlanta, GA: CDC.Google Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2016). HIV Surveillance Report, 28. Atlanta, GA: CDC.Google Scholar
  9. Cianelli, R., Villegas, N., Lawson, S., Ferrer, L., Kaelber, L., Peragallo, N., et al. (2013). Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: Intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 24(4), 341–354.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jana.2013.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Cuellar, I., Arnold, B., & Gonzalez, G. (1995a). Cognitive referents of acculturation: Assessment of cultural constructs in Mexican Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 23(4), 339–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cuellar, I., Arnold, B., & Maldonado, R. (1995b). Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA Scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17(3), 275–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Santis, J. P., Arcia, A., Vermeesch, A., & Gattamorta, K. A. (2011). Using structural equation modeling to identify predictors of sexual behaviors among Hispanic men who have sex with men. Nursing Clinics of North America, 46, 233–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2011.02.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Santis, J. P., Gonzalez-Guarda, R., Provencio-Vasquez, E., & Deleon, D. A. (2014). The tangled branches (Las ramas enredadas): Sexual risk, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence among Hispanic men who have sex with men. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(1), 23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659613504110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Santis, J. P., & Vasquez, E. P. (2010). An appraisal of the factors influencing human sexuality research in nursing. Nursing Forum, 45(3), 174–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Santis, J., Vasquez, E., Deleon, D., & Gonzalez-Guarda, R. (2012). Relationships as risk for HIV infection: High risk sex, substance abuse, and violence among Hispanic men who have sex with men. Horizonte de Enfermeria, 23(1), 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diaz, R. M. (1998). Latino gay men and HIV: Culture, sexuality and risk behavior. New York, NY: Routlegde.Google Scholar
  18. DiIorio, C., Parsons, M., Lehr, S., Adame, D., & Carlone, J. (1992). Measurement of safe sex behavior in adolescents and young adults. Nursing Research, 41(4), 203–208.Google Scholar
  19. Egan, J. E., Frye, V., Kurtz, S. P., Latkin, C., Chen, M., Tobin, K., et al. (2011). Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: Approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 15(S1), S35–S50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-011-9902-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Estrada, F., Rigali-Oiler, M., Arciniega, M., & Tracey, T. J. G. (2011). Machismo and Mexican American men: An empirical understanding using a gay sample. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(3), 358–367.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, B. C., Coon, D. W., & Crogan, N. L. (2007). Personalismo and breaking barriers: Accessing Hispanic populations for clinical services or research. Geriatric Nursing, 28(5), 289–296.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Florida Department of Health. (2016). HIV incidence surveillance in Florida. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from www.floridahealth.gov/diseases-and-conditions/aids/surveillance/.
  23. Gonzalez, J. S., Hendriksen, E. S., Collins, E. M., Duran, R. E., & Safren, S. A. (2009). Latinos and HIV/AIDS: Examining factors related to disparity and ndentifying opportunities for psychosocial intervention research. AIDS and Behavior, 13(3), 582–602.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-008-9402-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guarnero, P. A. (2007). Family and community influences on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 12–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jarama, S. L., Kennamer, J. D., Poppen, P. J., Hendricks, M., & Bradford, J. (2005). Psychosocial, behavioral, and cultural predictors of sexual risk for HIV infection among Latino men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 9(4), 513–523.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-005-9022-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leininger, M. M. (1988). Leininger’s theory of nursing: Cultural care diversity and universality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(4), 152–160.  https://doi.org/10.1177/089431848800100408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lo, S. C., Reisen, C. A., Poppen, P. J., Bianchi, F. T., & Zea, M. C. (2011). Cultural beliefs, partner characteristics, communication, and sexual risk among Latino MSM. AIDS and Behavior, 15, 613–620.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9760-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma, M., Malcolm, L. R., Diaz-Albertini, K., Klinoff, V. A., Leeder, E., Barrientos, S. K., et al. (2014). Latino cultural values as protective factors against sexual risks among adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 37(8), 1215–1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marcell, A. V., & the Male Training Center for Family Planning and Reproductive Health. (2014). Preventative male sexual and reproductive health care: Recommendations for clinical practice. Philadelphia, PA: Male Training Center for Family Planning and Reproductive Health.Google Scholar
  30. Organista, K. C., Carrillo, H., & Ayala, G. (2004). HIV prevention with Mexican migrants: Review, critique and recommendations. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 37(S4), S227–S239.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000141250.08475.91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Soper, D.S. (2016). A priori sample size calculator for multiple regression. [Software]. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from http://www.danielsoper.com/statcalc.
  32. Surace, F. I., Levitt, H. M., & Horne, S. G. (2017). The relation between cultural values and condom use among Latino gay men. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 29(3), 252–272.  https://doi.org/10.1080/105338720.2017.1320255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. United States Census Bureau. (2016). 2014 population estimates. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from www.census.gov.
  34. Warren, J. C., Fernandez, M. I., Harper, G. W., Hidalgo, M. A., Jamil, O. B., & Torres, R. S. (2008). Predictors of unprotected sex among young sexually active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: The importance of ethnicity and culture. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 459–468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9291-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph P. De Santis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karina A. Gattamorta
    • 1
  • Beatriz Valdes
    • 1
  • Michael Sanchez
    • 1
  • Elias Provencio-Vasquez
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  2. 2.School of Nursing, University of Texas at El PasoEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations