Advertisement

Sexual Double Standards in White and Asian Americans: Ethnicity, Gender, and Acculturation

Original Paper
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

This study compares attitudes of sexual double standards (beliefs that grant more sexual freedom to men than to women) in White and Asian Americans. 506 heterosexual participants living in the U.S. (334 Whites and 172 Asians aged 18–45) answered questions assessing their attitudes towards men and women displaying various liberal sexual behaviors. Asian participants also indicated their levels of American acculturation and Asian cultural affiliation. The study found significant evidence of sexual double standards in both Whites and Asians, with certain ethnically different patterns. Whites and Asians did not differ significantly in their levels of sexual double standards when it concerned casual sexual and multiple sexual partners at the same time. However, Asians expressed stronger support for double standards than Whites when evaluating people for taking the initiative in sex and for having a large accumulated number of sexual partners. In both ethnic groups, men demonstrated stronger double standards than did women. Both Whites and Asians, regardless of gender, reported more conservative sexual attitudes for choosing marriage partners than in judging people in general. In the case of Asians, American acculturation and Asian cultural affiliation had limited and gender-specific effects on endorsement of sexual double standards. This study not only addresses an important gap in the sexual double standards literature but also brings new insights to the general discussion of ethnic differences in sexual attitudes.

Keywords

Sexual attitudes Sexual behavior Sexual double standards Ethnic differences Gender differences Acculturation White American Asian American 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Dr. Jeffrey Lucas for his patient help with preparing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This study was funded by Dean’s Research Initiative Grant (The College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of Maryland at College Park).

Conflict of interest

There is no potential conflict of interest involved in this study.

Ethnical Approval

This study was approved by University of Maryland College Park (UMCP) IRB (Project#: 921365-1). All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Abraham, M. (1999). Sexual abuse in South Asian immigrant marriages. Violence Against Women, 5, 591–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrold, T. K., & Meston, C. M. (2010). Ethnic differences in sexual attitudes of US college students: Gender, acculturation, and religiosity factors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(1), 190–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akers, A. Y., Schwarz, E. B., Borrero, S., & Corbie-Smith, G. (2010). Family discussions about contraception and family planning: A qualitative exploration of Black parent and adolescent perspectives. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 42(3), 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronowitz, T., Todd, E., Agbeshie, E., & Rennells, R. E. (2007). Attitudes that affect the ability of African American preadolescent girls and their mothers to talk openly about sex. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28(1), 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aubrey, J. S. (2004). Sex and punishment: An examination of sexual consequences and the sexual double standard in teen programming. Sex Roles, 50(7–8), 505–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Averett, P., Benson, M., & Vaillancourt, K. (2008). Young women’s struggle for sexual agency: The role of parental messages. Journal of Gender Studies, 17(4), 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behrend, T. S., Sharek, D. J., Meade, A. W., & Wiebe, E. N. (2011). The viability of crowdsourcing for survey research. Behavior Research Methods, 43(3), 800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berinsky, A. J., Huber, G. A., & Lenz, G. S. (2012). Evaluating online labor markets for experimental research: Amazon.com’s mechanical Turk. Political Analysis, 20, 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berry, J. W., Jean, S. P., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bobo, L., & Licari, F. C. (1989). Education and political tolerance: Testing the effects of cognitive sophistication and target group affect. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bordini, G. S., & Sperb, T. M. (2013). Sexual double standard: A review of the literature between 2001 and 2010. Sexuality and Culture, 17(4), 686–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brotto, L. A., Chik, H. M., Ryder, A. G., Gorzalka, B. B., & Seal, B. N. (2005). Acculturation and sexual function in Asian women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34(6), 613–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brotto, Lori A., Woo, J. S. T., & Ryder, A. G. (2007). Acculturation and sexual function in Canadian East Asian men. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(1), 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, D. L., Rosnick, C. B., Webb-Bradley, T., & Kirner, J. (2014). Does daddy know best? Exploring the relationship between paternal sexual communication and safe sex practices among African-American women. Sex Education, 14(3), 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cain, V. S., Johannes, C. B., Avis, N. E., Mohr, B., Shocken, M., Skurnick, J., et al. (2003). Sexual functioning and practices in a multi-ethnic study of midlife women: Baseline results from SWAN. Journal of Sex Research, 40, 266–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caron, S. L., Davis, C. M., Halteman, W. A., & Stickle, M. (2011). Double Standard Scale. In T. D. Fisher, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (3rd ed., p. 199). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Cavazos-Rehg, P. A., Krauss, M. J., Spitznagel, E. L., Schootman, M., Bucholz, K. K., Peipert, J. F., et al. (2009). Age of sexual debut among US adolescents. Contraception, 80, 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chandler, J., Mueller, P., & Paolacci, G. (2014). Nonnaveté among Amazon Mechanical Turk workers: Consequences and solutions for behavioral researchers. Behavior Research Methods, 46, 112–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014 to 2060 population estimates and projections. Current Population Reports of United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/demo/p25-1143.pdf. Retrieved on July 03, 2018.
  20. Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2003). Sexual double standards: A review and methodological critique of two decades of research. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis, S. N., & Greenstein, T. N. (2009). Gender ideology: Components, predictors, and consequences. Annual Review of Sociology, 35(1), 87–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeLamater, J., & MacCorquodale, P. (1979). Premarital sexuality. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  23. Devdas, N. R., & Rubin, L. J. (2007). Rape myth acceptance among first- and second-generation South Asian American women. Sex Roles, 56(9–10), 701–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Devries, K. M., & Free, C. (2010). ‘I told him not to use condoms’: Masculinities, femininities and sexual health of Aboriginal Canadian young people. Sociology of Health & Illness, 32(6), 827–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebrey, P. (2006). Confucianism. In D. S. Browning, M. C. Green, & J. Witte (Eds.), Sex, marriage, and family in world religions (pp. 367–450). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Eder, D., Evans, C. C., & Parker, S. (1995). Gender and adolescent culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Espiritu, Y. L. (2001). “We don’t sleep around like White girls do”: Family, culture, and gender in Filipina American lives. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 26, 415–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fasula, A. M., Carry, M., & Miller, K. S. (2014). A multidimensional framework for the meanings of the sexual double standard and its application for the sexual health of young Black women in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research, 51(2), 170–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fasula, A. M., Miller, K. S., & Wiener, J. (2007). The sexual double standard in African American adolescent women’s sexual risk reduction socialization. Women and Health, 46(2–3), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Feldman, S., Turner, R., & Araujo, K. (1999). Interpersonal context as an influence on sexual timetables of youths: Gender and ethnic effects. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 9(1), 25–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flores, D., & Barroso, J. (2017). 21st Century parent–child sex communication in the United States: A process review. The Journal of Sex Research, 54(4–5), 532–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fromme, R. E., & Emihovich, C. (1998). Boys will be boys: Young males’ perceptions of women, sexuality and prevention. Education and Urban Society, 30, 172–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fugère, M. A., Escoto, C., Cousins, A. J., Riggs, M. L., & Haerich, P. (2008). Sexual attitudes and double standards: A literature review focusing on participant gender and ethnic background. Sexuality and Culture, 12(3), 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fullilove, M. T., Fullilove, R. E., Haynes, K., & Gross, S. (1990). Black women and AIDS prevention: A view towards understanding the gender rules. The Journal of Sex Research, 27, 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gil, V., & Anderson, A. F. (1999). Case study of rape in contemporary China: A cultural-historical analysis of gender and power differentials. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14, 1151–1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gillmore, M. R., Chen, A. C., Haas, S. A., Kopak, A. M., & Robillard, A. G. (2011). Do family and parenting factors in adolescence influence condom use in early adulthood in a multiethnic sample of young adults? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(11), 1503–1518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goodman, J. K., Cryder, C. E., & Cheema, A. (2013). Data collection in a flat world: The strengths and weaknesses of Mechanical Turk samples. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26, 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greene, K., & Faulkner, S. L. (2005). Gender, belief in the sexual double standard, and sexual talk in heterosexual dating relationships. Sex Roles, 53(3–4), 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta, S. R. (1999). Emerging voices: South Asian American women redefine self, family, and community. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.Google Scholar
  40. Haavio-Mannila, E., & Kontula, O. (2003). Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hahm, H. C., Lahiff, M., & Barreto, R. M. (2006). Asian American adolescents’ first sexual intercourse: Gender and acculturation differences. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38, 28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartley, H., & Drew, T. (2002). Gendered messages in sex Ed films: Trends and implications for female sexual problems. Women & Therapy, 24(1–2), 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hauser, D., & Schwarz, N. (2015). Attentive Turkers: MTurk participants perform better on online attention checks than subject pool participants. Behavior Research Methods, 48(1), 400–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heisler, J. M. (2014). They need to sow their wild oats: Mothers’ recalled memorable messages to their emerging adult children regarding sexuality and dating. Emerging Adulthood, 2(4), 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hello, E., Scheepers, P., & Sleegers, P. (2006). Why the more educated are less inclined to keep ethnic distance: An empirical test of four explanations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29(5), 959–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hillier, L., Harrison, L., & Warr, D. (1998). When you carry condoms all the boys think you want it: Negotiating competing discourses about safe sex. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hjerm, M., Sevä, I. J., & Werner, L. (2018). How critical thinking, multicultural education and teacher qualification affect anti-immigrant attitudes. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 2018, 1–18.Google Scholar
  48. Ho, I. K., Dinh, K. T., Bellefontaine, S. M., & Irving, A. L. (2018). Cultural adaptation and sexual harassment in the lives of Asian American women. Women & Therapy, February, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huff, C., & Tingley, D. (2015). “Who are these people?” Evaluating the demographic characteristics and political preferences of MTurk survey respondents. Research and Politics, 2(3), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hynie, M., & Lydon, J. E. (1995). Women’s perceptions of female contraceptive behavior: Experimental evidence of the sexual double standard. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 563–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Inman, A. G., Ladany, N., Constantine, M. G., & Morano, C. K. (2001). Development and preliminary validation of the cultural values conflict scale for South Asian Women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jozkowski, K. N., Marcantonio, T. L., & Hunt, M. E. (2017). College students’ sexual consent communication and perceptions of sexual double standards: A qualitative investigation. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 49(4), 237–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Katz, J., Tirone, V., & Kloet, E. V. D. (2012). Moving in and Hooking up: Women’s and men’s casual sexual experiences during the first two months of college. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality. http://mail.ejhs.org/volume15/Hookingup.html.
  54. Kelley, K. (1979). Socialization factors in contraceptive attitudes: Roles of affective responses, parental attitudes, and sexual experience. The Journal of Sex Research, 15, 6–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kelly, J., & Bazzini, D. G. (2002). Gender, sexual experience, and the sexual double standard: Evaluations of female contraceptive behavior. Sex Roles, 45(11–12), 785–799.Google Scholar
  56. Kennedy, M. A., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2002). Asian and non-Asian attitudes toward rape, sexual harassment, and sexuality. Sex Roles, 46(7–8), 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim, J. L. (2009). Asian American women’s retrospective reports of their sexual socialization. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(3), 334–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kim, J. L., & Ward, L. M. (2007). Silence speaks volumes: Parental sexual communication among Asian American emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22(1), 3–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. King, K., Balswick, J. O., & Robinson, I. E. (1977). The continuing premarital sexual revolution among college females. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 455–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koo, K. H., Stephens, K. A., Lindgren, K. P., & George, W. H. (2012). Misogyny, acculturation, and ethnic identity: Relation to rape-supportive attitudes in Asian American college men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(4), 1005–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kreager, D. A., & Staff, J. (2009). The sexual double standard and adolescent peer acceptance. Social Psychology Quarterly, 72(2), 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krupnikov, Y., & Levine, A. S. (2014). Cross-sample comparisons and external validity. Journal of Experimental Political Science, 1, 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kulkarni, S. (2007). Romance narrative, feminine ideals, and developmental detours for young mothers. Affilia: Journal of Women, 22(1), 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lam, T. H., Shi, H. J., Ho, L. M., Stewart, S. M., & Fan, S. (2002). Timing of pubertal maturation and heterosexual behavior among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 359–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Laumann, E. O., Nicolosi, A., Glasser, B., Paik, A., Gingell, C., Moreira, E., et al. (2005). Sexual problems among women and men aged 40–80 years: Prevalence and correlates identified in the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. International Journal of Impotence Research, 17, 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee, J., Kim, J., & Lim, H. (2010). Rape myth acceptance among Korean college students: The roles of gender, attitudes toward women, and sexual double standard. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(7), 1200–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee, J., Lee, C., & Lee, W. (2012). Attitudes toward women, rape myths, and rape perceptions among male police officers in South Korea. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36(3), 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee, J., Pomeroy, E. C., Yoo, S. K., & Rheinboldt, K. T. (2005). Attitudes toward rape: A comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students. Violence Against Women, 11(2), 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lin, K., Sun, I. Y., Wu, Y., & Liu, J. (2016). College students’ attitudes toward intimate partner violence: A comparative study of China and the US. Journal of Family Violence, 31(2), 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liu, G. (1997). An investigation of adolescent health from China. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20, 306–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Loxley, W. (1996). “Sluts” or “sleazy little animals”? Young people’s difficulties with carrying and using condoms. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 6, 293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Luo, T. (2000). Marrying my rapist? The cultural trauma among Chinese rape survivors. Gender & Society, 14, 581–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marks, M. J. (2008). Evaluations of sexually active men and women under divided attention: A social cognitive approach to the sexual double standard. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30(1), 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marks, Michael J., & Fraley, R. C. (2005). The sexual double standard: Fact or fiction? Sex Roles, 52(3–4), 175–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marks, M. J., & Fraley, R. C. (2007). The impact of social interaction on the sexual double standard. Social Influence, 2(1), 29–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Martin, K. A., & Luke, K. (2010). Gender differences in the ABC’s of the birds and the bees: What mothers teach young children about sexuality and reproduction. Sex Roles, 62(3–4), 278–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mason, W., & Suri, S. (2012). Conducting behavioral research on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Behavioral research, 44, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Measor, L., Tiffin, C., & Miller, K. (2000). Young people’s views on sex education: Education, attitudes and behaviour. London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  79. Meston, C. M., & Ahrold, T. (2010). Ethnic, gender, and acculturation influences on sexual behaviors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(1), 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Meston, C. M., Trapnell, P. D., & Gorzalka, B. B. (1998). Ethnic, gender, and length-of-residency influences on sexual knowledge and attitudes. The Journal of Sex Research, 35(2), 176–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Moffat, M. (1989). Coming of age in New Jersey. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Mori, L., Bernat, J. A., Glenn, P. A., Selle, L. L., & Zarate, M. G. (1995). Attitudes toward rape: Gender and ethnic differences across Asian and Caucasian college students. Sex Roles, 32(7–8), 457–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Morton, H., & Gorzalka, B. B. (2013). Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: Differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(8), 1615–1625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Muehlenhard, C. L., & Quackenbush, D. M. (1996). The social meaning of women’s condom use: The sexual double standard and women’s beliefs about the meaning ascribed to condom use. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  85. Muehlenhard, C. L., & Quackenbush, D. M. (2011). Sexual Double Standard Scale. In T. D. Fisher, et al. (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (3rd ed., p. 195). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Murphy-Erby, Y., Stauss, K., Boyas, J., & Bivens, V. (2011). Voices of Latino parents and teens: Tailored strategies for parent–child communication related to sex. Journal of Children and Poverty, 17(1), 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ng, M. L., & Lau, M. D. (1990). Sexual attitudes in the Chinese. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19, 373–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nunn, C. S., Crockett, H. J., Jr., & Williams, J. A., Jr. (1978). Tolerance for nonconformity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  89. O’Sullivan, L. F. (1995). Less Is more: The effects of sexual experience on judgments of men’s and women’s personality characteristics and relationship desirability. Sex Roles, 33(3–4), 159–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Okazaki, S. (2002). Influences of culture on Asian Americans’ sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Oliver, M. B., & Sedikides, C. (1992). Effects of sexual permissiveness on desirability of partner as a function of low and high commitment to relationship. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Orenstein, P. (1994). School girls: Young women, self-esteem, and the confidence gap. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  93. Oropesa, R. Salvatore. (1996). Normative beliefs about marriage and Cohabitation: A comparison of Non-Latino Whites, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1996, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Petersen, J. L., & Hyde, J. S. (2011). Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors: A review of meta-analytic results and large datasets. The Journal of Sex Research, 48(2–3), 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Regan, P. C., Durvasula, R., Howell, L., Ureño, O., & Rea, M. (2004). Gender, ethnicity, and the developmental timing of first sexual and romantic experiences. Social Behavior and Personality, 32, 667–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Reid, J. A., Elliott, S., & Webber, G. R. (2011). Casual hookups to formal dates: Refining the boundaries of the sexual double standard. Gender & Society, 25(5), 545–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Reiss, I. L. (1967). The social context of premarital sexual permissiveness. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  98. Ronen, S. (2010). Grinding on the dance floor: Gendered scripts and sexualized dancing at college parties. Gender & Society, 24(3), 355–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ross, J., Irani, I., Silberman, M., Zaldivar, A., & Tomlinson, B. (2010). Who are the crowd workers? Shifting demographics in Amazon Mechanical Turk. In: CHI EA 2010 (pp. 2863–2872).Google Scholar
  100. Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., & Paulhus, D. L. (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self- identity, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 49–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sahl, D., & Keene, J. R. (2010). The sexual double standard and gender differences in predictors of perceptions of adult-teen sexual relationships. Sex Roles, 62(3–4), 264–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sanchez, D. T., Crocker, J., & Boike, K. R. (2005). Doing gender in the bedroom: Investing in gender norms and the sexual experience. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(10), 1445–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sheeran, P., Spears, R., Abraham, S. C. S., & Abrams, D. (1996). Religiosity, gender, and the double standard. The Journal of Psychology, 130(1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sierra, J. C., Santos-Iglesias, P., Gutiérrez-Quintanilla, R., Bermúdez, M. P., & Buela-Casal, G. (2010). Factors associated with rape-supportive attitudes: Sociodemographic variables, aggressive personality, and sexist attitudes. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 202–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smith, D. J. (2010). Promiscuous girls, good wives, and cheating husbands: Gender inequality, transitions to marriage, and infidelity in Southeastern Nigeria. Anthropological Quarterly, 83(1), 10.Google Scholar
  106. Smith, G., Mysak, K., & Michael, S. (2008). Sexual double standards and sexually transmitted illnesses: Social rejection and stigmatization of women. Sex Roles, 58(5–6), 391–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sneed, C., Somoza, C. G., Jones, T., & Alfaro, S. (2013). Topics discussed with mothers and fathers for parent–child sex communication among African-American adolescents. Sex Education, 13(4), 450–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sprecher, S., & Hatfield, E. (1996). Premarital sexual standards among U.S. college students: Comparison with Russian and Japanese Students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(3), 261–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sprecher, S., McKinney, K., & Orbuch, T. L. (1991). The effect of current sexual behavior on friendship, dating, and marriage desirability. The Journal of Sex Research, 28, 387–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stacey, J. (1983). Patriarchy and socialist revolution in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  111. Stauss, K., Murphy-Erby, Y., Boyas, J., & Bivens, V. (2011). Parent–child communication related to sexual health: The contextual experiences of rural Latino parents and youth. Advances in Social Work, 12(2), 181–201.Google Scholar
  112. Summerville, A., & Chartier, C. R. (2012). Pseudo-dyadic “interaction” on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Behavior Research Methods, 45(1), 116–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Süssenbach, P., & Bohner, G. (2011). Acceptance of sexual aggression myths in a representative sample of German residents. Aggressive Behavior, 37(4), 374–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Talbani, A., & Hasanali, P. (2000). Adolescent females between tradition and modernity: Gender role socialization in South Asian immigrant culture. Journal of Adolescence, 23(5), 615–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Thompson, S. (1995). Going all the way: Teenage girls’ tales of sex, romance, and pregnancy. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  116. Tong, Y. (2013). Acculturation, gender disparity, and the sexual behavior of Asian American youth. The Journal of Sex Research, 50(6), 560–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Treas, J. (2002). How cohorts, education, and ideology shaped a new sexual revolution on American attitudes toward nonmarital sex, 1972–1998. Sociological Perspectives, 45(3), 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Trinh, S. L., Ward, L. M., Day, K., Thomas, K., & Levin, D. (2014). Contributions of divergent peer and parent sexual messages to Asian American college students’ sexual behaviors. The Journal of Sex Research, 51(2), 208–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tsunokai, G. T., McGrath, A. R., & Hernandez-Hernandez, L. (2012). Early sexual initiation and HIV awareness among Asian American adolescents. Journal of Asian American Studies, 15(3), 299–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. United States Census Bureau. (2017). Facts for features, Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2017/cb17-ff07.html. Retrieved on July 03, 2018.
  121. Valenzuela, A. (1993). Liberal gender role attitudes and academic achievement among Mexican-Origin adolescents in two Houston inner-city Catholic schools. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15(3), 310–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ward, J. V., & Taylor, J. (1994). Sexuality education for immigrant and minority students: Developing a culturally appropriate curriculum. In J. M. Irvine (Ed.), Sexual cultures and the construction of adolescent identities (pp. 51–68). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Weil, F. D. (1985). The variable effects of education on liberal attitudes: A comparative-historical analysis of Anti-Semitism using public opinion survey data. American Sociological Review, 50(4), 458–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. White, B. H., & Kurpius, S. E. R. (2002). Effects of victim sex and sexual orientation on perceptions of rape. Sex Roles, 46, 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Whitley, B. E. (1988). The relation of gender-role orientation to sexual experience among college students. Sex Roles, 19, 619–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wilson, E. K., & Koo, H. P. (2010). Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: Gender differences in factors associated with parent–child communication about sexual topics. Reproductive Health, 7, 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wong, D. (1987). Preventing child sexual abuse among Southeast Asian refugee families. Children Today, 16, 18–22.Google Scholar
  128. Xenos, S., & Smith, D. (2001). Perceptions of rape and sexual assault among Australian adolescents and young adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 1103–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhang, K. L., Li, D., Li, H., & Beck, E. J. (1999). Changing sexual attitudes and behavior in China: Implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. AIDS Care, 11, 581–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zuckerman, M., Tushup, R., & Finner, S. (1976). Sexual attitudes and experience: Attitude and personality correlates and changes produced by a course in sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44(1), 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations