Advertisement

Public nuisance, public enemy, public servant? Introduction to the special issue on outlaw bikers in Europe

  • Klaus von LampeEmail author
Article

Abstract

This essay presents an introduction to the special issue on outlaw motorcycle clubs in Europe. Apart from providing an overview of the papers contained in the special issue, it presents a classificatory scheme for the analysis of the links between outlaw biker clubs-also known as outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs)-and crime. Against the backdrop of the history of the outlaw biker subculture in Europe, this paper proposes a five-fold typology of criminal activities that can potentially by ascribed to biker clubs as organizational entities, and it presents three different scenarios for an overlap of criminal structures and the formal structure of an outlaw biker club.

Keywords

Outlaw motorcycle clubs Outlaw motorcycle gangs OMCG Biker Organized crime Europe 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is based in part on a presentation given at the symposium “Profiling Dutch Outlaw Bikers and Dutch Outlaw Biker Clubs” held at Leiden University in September 2017. I would like to thank Arjan Blokland for inviting me to this event, and for providing valuable feedback on the presentation and on the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the author.

References

  1. Ahlsdorf M (2009) Alles über rocker. Huber, MannheimGoogle Scholar
  2. Albini JL (1971) The American mafia: genesis of a legend. Meredith, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht F (2018) Anmerkungen zu den “Strukturmerkmalen” sog. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Kriminalistik 72(6):357–362Google Scholar
  4. Barker T (2015) Biker gangs and transnational organized crime, 2nd edn. Anderson, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  5. Bjørgo T (2016) Preventing crime: a holistic approach. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  6. Blokland A, Soudijn M, van der Leest W (2017) Outlaw bikers in the Netherlands: clubs, social criminal organizations, or gangs? In: Bain A, Lauchs M (eds) Understanding the outlaw motorcycle gangs: international perspectives. Carolina Academic Press, Durham, pp 91–111Google Scholar
  7. Brottsförebyggande rådet (1999) MC-brott. Rapport 1999: 6. Brottsförebyggande rådet, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  8. Caine A (2010) The fat Mexican: the bloody rise of the Bandidos motorcycle Club. Vintage Canada, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  9. Decker SH, Bynum T, Weisel D (1998) A tale of two cities: gangs as organized crime groups. Justice Q 15(3):395–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Densley JA (2014) It’s gang life, but not as we know it: the evolution of gang business. Crime Delinq 60(4):517–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Europol (1997). Vorläufiger Strategischer Bericht über: Kriminelle Motorradbanden (OMCGs) in Europa. Zentraler Sprachendienst bei der Oberfinanzdirektion Cottbus. Übersetzung aus dem Englischen. http://docplayer.org/28650230-Europol-operation-monitor-313-vorlaeufiger-strategischer-bericht-ober-daenemark-zentraler-sprachendienst-bei-der-oberfinanzdirektion-cottbus-r.html (Accessed 25 May 2018)
  12. Europol (2018). Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. https://www.europol.europa.eu/crime-areas-and-trends/crime-areas/outlaw-motorcycle-gangs (Accessed 27 Dec 2018)
  13. Gambetta D (1993) The Sicilian mafia: the business of private protection. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Geurtjens K, Nelen H, Vanderhallen M (2018) From bikers to gangsters: on the development of and the public response to outlaw biker clubs in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. In: Kuldova T, Sanchez-Jankowski M (eds) Outlaw motorcycle clubs and street gangs: scheming legality, resisting criminalization. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, pp 93–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haller MH (1992) Bureaucracy and the mafia: an alternative view. J Contemp Crim Justice 8(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heitmüller U (2016) Europol und die Rockerdatei. In: Schelhorn L, Heitmüller U, Kruse K (eds) Jagd auf die rocker. Huber, Mannheim, pp 248–287Google Scholar
  17. Klement C (2016) Three papers on crime among outlaw bikers in Denmark. University of Copenhagen, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  18. Kreuzer A (1975) Drogen und Delinquenz: Eine jugendkriminologisch-empirische Untersuchung der Erscheinungsformen und Zusammenhänge. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  19. Larsson P (2016) “The big scare”: bikers and the construction of organized crime in Norway. In: Antonopoulos GA (ed) Illegal entrepreneurship, organized crime and social control: essays in honor of professor dick Hobbs. Springer International, Cham, pp 205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marsden W, Sher J (2007) Angels of death: inside the bikers’ empire of crime. Vintage Canada, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  21. Morselli C (2009) Hells Angels in Springtime. Trends Organ Crime 12(2):145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Police Directorate (2010) The Norwegian police force’s efforts to combat outlaw motorcycle gangs, 2011–2015. Politidirektoratet, OsloGoogle Scholar
  23. Quinn J, Koch DS (2003) The nature of criminality within one-percent motorcycle clubs. Deviant Behav 24(3):281–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reuter P (1983) Disorganized crime: the economics of the visible hand. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  25. von Lampe K (2016) Organized crime: analyzing illegal activities, criminal structures, and extra-legal governance. Sage, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wolf DR (1991) The rebels: a Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Police and Security ManagementBerlin School of Economics and LawBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations