Journal of African American Studies

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 1–16 | Cite as

Historical Disaster and the New Urban Crisis

ARTICLES
  • 116 Downloads

Abstract

Conventional studies of urban poverty largely blame African Americans for their impoverished situation and the consequent social difficulties that arise there from. This paper confronts and indicts that perspective. Examining the historic dehumanization process that shaped African America, the present study argues that it served as the framework for how whites justified their racist and violent treatment of slaves and their African American descendants. It was this same racist theory and practice that led to the construction of racialized oppressive urban ghettos that became the economically impoverished domicile for urban black people. Therefore, poor African Americans have been caught in a cauldron of circumstances not of their own making, but with which they have had to cope and struggle.

Keywords

Scholarship of indictment Slavery Dehumanization process Neo-slavery The great migration Urban black impoverishment Urban underclass Killer-kop terrorism Economic exploitation Political oppression White supremacy Anti-black racism Civil rights movement Black power movement Social movements Black elected officials Postindustrial-managerial cities and societies Ronald Reagan administration drug dumping Crack cocaine epidemic 

References

  1. Abrams, P. (1982). Historical sociology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  3. Allmendinger, D. (2014). Nat Turner and the rising in Southampton County. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Andreas, P. (2013). Smuggler nation: how illicit trade made America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Aptheker, H. (1943). Negro slave revolts. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Auletta, K. (1982). The underclass. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin, J. (1998). On being ‘white’…and other lies. In D. R. Roediger (Ed.), Black on white: black writers on what it means to be white. New York: Schocren Books.Google Scholar
  8. Balko, R. (2013). Rise of the warrior cop: the militarization of America’s police forces. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society: a venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Biondi, M. (2014). Black revolution on campus. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Blassingame, J. (1972). The slave community: plantation life in the ante-bellum south. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Blackmon, D. (2008). Slavery by another name: the re-enslavement of black Americans from the civil war to World War II. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  13. Bluestone, B., & Harrison, B. (1982). The deindustrialization of America: plant closings, community abandonment, and the dismantling of basic industry. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Blumenthal, M. (2009). Republican Gomorrah: inside the movement that shattered the party. New York: Nation Books.Google Scholar
  15. Bouwsma, W. J. (1988). John Calvin: a sixteenth century portrait. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cherry, C. (Ed.). (1998). God’s new Israel: religious interpretations of American destiny. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, K. (1965). Dark ghetto: dilemmas of social power. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Coates, T. N. (2015). Between the world and me. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  19. Cruse, H. (1967). The crisis of the negro intellectual. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc..Google Scholar
  20. Domanick, J. (2003). To protect and serve: the LAPD’s century of war in the city of dreams. Los Angeles: Figueroa Press.Google Scholar
  21. Domanick, J. (2015). Blue: the LAPD and the battle to redeem American policing. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  22. Drake, S. C., & Cayton, H. R. (1945). Black metropolis: a study of negro life in a Northern City. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.Google Scholar
  23. Eyerman, R. (2001). Cultural trauma: slavery and the formation of African American Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Feagin, J. R. (2000). Racist America: roots, current realities, and future reparations. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Fischer, F. (1990). Technocracy and the politics of expertise. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  26. Fulton, S., & Martin, T. (2017). Rest in power: the enduring life of Trayvon Martin. New York: Spiegel & Grau.Google Scholar
  27. Gottschalk, M. (2015). Caught: the prison state and the lockdown of American politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greene, J. P. (1993). The intellectual construction of America: exceptionalism and identity from 1492 to 1800. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  29. Guyatt, N. (2016). Bind us apart: how enlightened Americans invented racial segregation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  30. Haley, S. (2016). No mercy here: gender, punishment, and the making of Jim Crow modernity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey, S. (2016). Smuggling: seven centuries of contraband. London: Reaktion Books.Google Scholar
  32. Hayes III, F. W. (2006). Politics of knowledge: black policy professionals in the managerial age. In L. R. Gordon & J. A. Gordon (Eds.), A companion to African-American studies (pp. 435–452). Malden: Blackwell Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hayes III, F. W. (2012). Hope and disappointment in Martin Luther King, Jr.’s political theology: eclipse of the liberal Spirit. In R. E. Birt (Ed.), The liberatory thought of Martin Luther King, Jr.: critical essays on the philosopher King (pp. 299–319). Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  34. Hayes III, F. W. (2015). War against the people: killer cops and community terrorism. Critical Sociology., 41(16), 881–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Higginbotham, L. (1978). In the matter of color: race and the American legal process—the colonial period. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hinton, E. (2016). From the war on poverty to the war on crime: the making of mass incarceration in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hochschild, A. R. (2016). Strangers in their own land: anger and mourning on the American right. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  38. Ignatiev, N. (1995). How the Irish became white. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Jeffries, J. L. (Ed.). (2006). Black power in the belly of the beast. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  40. Jencks, C., & Peterson, P. E. (Eds.). (1991). The urban underclass. Washington: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  41. Jenkins, J. C., & Klandermans, B. (Eds.). (1995). The politics of social protest: comparative perspectives on states and social movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  42. Johnson, C. (2010). Dismantling the empire: America’s last best hope. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  43. Johnson, W. (1999). Soul by soul: life inside the antebellum slave market. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, E. P. (2003). The known world, a novel. New York: Amistad.Google Scholar
  45. Joseph, P. (Ed.). (2006). The black power movement: rethinking the civil rights-black power era. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Kaplan, R. (2000). The coming anarchy: shattering the dreams of the post cold war. New York: Vintage Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klein, N. (2007). The shock doctrine: the rise of disaster capitalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  48. Loewenstein, A. (2015). Disaster capitalism: making a killing out of catastrophe. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  49. McAdam, D., & Kloos, K. (2014). Deeply divided: racial politics and social movements in postwar America. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. McSpadden, L., & LaFlore, L. (2016). Tell the truth and shame the devil: the life, legacy, and love of my son Michael Brown. New York: Regan Arts.Google Scholar
  51. Massey, D., & Denton, N. (1993). American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Mead, L. (1986). Beyond entitlement: the social obligations of citizenship. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  53. Mead, L. (1992). The new politics of poverty. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  54. Mills, C. (1997). The racial contract. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Morris, A. (1984). The origins of the civil rights movement: black communities organizing for change. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  56. Muhammad, K. G. (2010). The condemnation of blackness: race, crime, and the making of modern urban America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Newman, K., Fox, C., Harding, D., Mehta, J., & Roth, W. (2004). Rampage: the social roots of school shootings. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  58. Patterson, O. (1982). Slavery and social death: a comparative study. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Patterson, O. (Ed.). (2015). The cultural matrix: understanding black youth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Richie, B. E. (2012). Arrested justice: black women, violence, and America’s prison nation. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Roediger, D. R. (1991). The wages of whiteness: race and the making of the American working class. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  62. Roediger, D. R. (2005). Working toward whiteness: how America’s immigrants became white. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  63. Rojas, F. (2010). From black power to black studies: how a radical social movement became an academic discipline. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Rothkopf, D. (2014). National insecurity: American leadership in an age of fear. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  65. Rothstein, R. (2017). The color of law: a forgotten history of how our government segregated America. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  66. Sassen, S. (1991). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Savitch, S. V. (1988). Post-industrial cities: politics and planning in New York, Paris, and London. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Saxton, A. (1990). The rise and fall of the white republic: class politics and mass culture in nineteenth-century America. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  69. Smith, R. C. (1996). We have no leaders: African Americans in the post-civil rights era. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  70. Stampp, K. M. (1956). “To make them stand in fear.” The peculiar institution: slavery in the ante-bellum south. New York: Vintage Books. 141–189.Google Scholar
  71. Sublette, N., & Sublette, C. (2016). The American slave coast: a history of the slave-breeding industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.Google Scholar
  72. Taibbi, M. (2017). I can’t breathe: a killing on bay street. New York: Spiegel and Grau.Google Scholar
  73. Tawney, R. H. (1998). Religion and the rise of capitalism. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  74. Valentine, C. (1968). Culture and poverty: critique and counter-proposals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Wallerstein, I. (2003). The decline of American power. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  76. Walters, R. (1988). Black presidential politics in America: a strategic approach. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  77. Watkins, D. (2015). The beast side: living and dying while black in America. New York: Hot Books.Google Scholar
  78. Watkins, D. (2016). The cook up: a crack rock memoir. New York: Grand Central Publishing.Google Scholar
  79. Watts, J. (2001). Amiri Baraka: the politics and art of a black intellectual. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Webb, G. (1998). Dark alliance: the CIA, the contras, and the crack cocaine explosion. New York: Seven Stories Press.Google Scholar
  81. Weber, M. (1976). The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. London: Unwin Hyman Limited.Google Scholar
  82. Wilkerson, I. (2010). The warmth of other suns: the epic story of America’s great migration. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  83. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  84. Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: the world of the new urban poor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.Google Scholar
  85. Wilson, W. J. (2009). More than just race: being black and poor in the inner city. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc..Google Scholar
  86. Wood, F. G. (1990). The arrogance of God: Christianity and race in America from the colonial era to the twentieth century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..Google Scholar
  87. Woodard, K. (2006). Amiri Baraka, the congress of African people, and black power politics from the 1961 United Nations protest to the 1972 Gary Convention. In P. Joseph (Ed.), The black power movement: rethinking the civil rights—black power era (pp. 55–103). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Wright, R. (1988). 12 million black voices. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press.Google Scholar
  89. Wright, R. (1995a). White man, listen! Westport: Greenwood Press, Publishers.Google Scholar
  90. Wright, R. (1995b). The outsider. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.Google Scholar
  91. Yancy, G., & Jones, J. (Eds.). (2013). Pursuing Trayvon Martin historical contexts and contemporary manifestations of racial dynamics. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations