Candidiasis: Red and White Manifestations in the Oral Cavity

  • John W. HellsteinEmail author
  • Cindy L. Marek
Special Issue: Colors and Textures, a Review of Oral Mucosal Entities


Candidiasis is a very common malady in the head neck region. This review will concentrate on intraoral, pharyngeal and perioral manifestations and treatment. A history of the origins associated with candidiasis will be introduced. In addition, oral conditions associated with candidiasis will be mentioned and considered. The various forms of oral and maxillofacial candidiasis will be reviewed to include pseudomembranous, acute, chronic, median rhomboid glossitis, perioral dermatitis, and angular cheilitis. At the end of this review the clinician will be better able to diagnose and especially treat candidal overgrowth of the oral facial region. Of particular interest to the clinician are the various treatment modalities with appropriate considerations for side effects.


Candidiasis Candidosis Fungal Thrush Candidiasis diagnosis Candidiasis treatment 



This article did not receive any funding.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human and Animal Participants

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individuals whose photographs are used in this article.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Pathology Radiology and MedicineThe University of Iowa College of DentistryIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Division of Applied Clinical SciencesThe University of Iowa College of PharmacyIowa CityUSA

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