Frictional Keratosis, Contact Keratosis and Smokeless Tobacco Keratosis: Features of Reactive White Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

  • Susan MüllerEmail author
Special Issue: Colors and Textures, a Review of Oral Mucosal Entities


White lesions of the oral cavity are quite common and can have a variety of etiologies, both benign and malignant. Although the vast majority of publications focus on leukoplakia and other potentially malignant lesions, most oral lesions that appear white are benign. This review will focus exclusively on reactive white oral lesions. Included in the discussion are frictional keratoses, irritant contact stomatitis, and smokeless tobacco keratoses. Leukoedema and hereditary genodermatoses that may enter in the clinical differential diagnoses of frictional keratoses including white sponge nevus and hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis will be reviewed. Many products can result in contact stomatitis. Dentrifice-related stomatitis, contact reactions to amalgam and cinnamon can cause keratotic lesions. Each of these lesions have microscopic findings that can assist in patient management.


Leukoplakia Frictional keratosis Smokeless tobacco keratosis Stomatitis Leukoedema Cinnamon 



No funding was required for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Atlanta Oral Pathology, Emory Decatur HospitalEmory University School of MedicineDecaturUSA

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