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Black and Brown: Non-neoplastic Pigmentation of the Oral Mucosa

  • Molly S. RosebushEmail author
  • Ashleigh N. Briody
  • Kitrina G. Cordell
Special Issue: Colors and Textures, a Review of Oral Mucosal Entities

Abstract

Black and brown pigmentation of the oral mucosa can occur due to a multitude of non-neoplastic causes. Endogenous or exogenous pigments may be responsible for oral discoloration which can range from innocuous to life-threatening in nature. Physiologic, reactive, and idiopathic melanin production seen in smoker’s melanosis, drug-related discolorations, melanotic macule, melanoacanthoma and systemic diseases are presented. Exogenous sources of pigmentation such as amalgam tattoo and black hairy tongue are also discussed. Determining the significance of mucosal pigmented lesions may represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Biopsy is indicated whenever the source of pigmentation cannot be definitively identified based on the clinical presentation.

Keywords

Black Brown Pigmentation Oral mucosa Melanin Melanotic Biopsy 

Notes

Funding

None.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Molly S. Rosebush
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ashleigh N. Briody
    • 2
  • Kitrina G. Cordell
    • 1
  1. 1.Louisiana State UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Central Ohio Skin & Cancer, Inc.WestervilleUSA

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