Advertisement

A Guide to Yellow Oral Mucosal Entities: Etiology and Pathology

  • Duane R. SchaferEmail author
  • Sarah H. Glass
Special Issue: Colors and Textures, a Review of Oral Mucosal Entities

Abstract

When faced with an uncertain clinical pathosis in the oral cavity, identifying the color of the mucosal lesion helps to narrow down a differential diagnosis. Although less common than red and white lesions, yellow lesions encompass a small group of distinct mucosal pathologic entities. Adipose tissue, lymphoid tissue, and sebaceous glands are naturally occurring yellow constituents of the oral cavity and become apparent with associated developmental or neoplastic lesions. Reactive and inflammatory lesions can create a yellow hue due to purulence, necrosis, and calcification. Some systemic diseases are known to deposit yellow bi-products such as amyloid or bilirubin into the oral mucosa of an affected person, and while not always yellow, unusual entities like verruciform xanthoma and granular cell tumor fall under the umbrella of yellow lesions given their occasional propensity to demonstration the color. This chapter aims to explore the unique group that is yellow lesions presenting in the oral mucosa.

Keywords

Oral cavity Yellow Mucosal Mouth Oral manifestations Systemic disease 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

As no human participants were involved in a study, informed consent was not required.

References

  1. 1.
    Fordyce JA. A peculiar affection of the mucous membranes of the lips and the oral cavity. J Cutan Genito-Urin Dis. 1896;14:413–9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC. Developmental defects of the oral and maxillofacial region. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2016:pp. 1–48.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Batsakis JG, el-Naggar AK. Sebaceous lesion of salivary glands and oral cavity. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990;99:414–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gaballah KY, Rahimi I. Can presence of oral Fordyce’s granules serve as a marker for hyperlipidemia. Dent Res J. 2014;11:553–8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Antonio N. Oral mucosa. Ten Cate’s oral histology. 9th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2017. pp. 260–88.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azevedo RS, Almeida OP, Netto JNS, Miranda AM, et al. Comparative clinicopathological study of intraoral sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous adenoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:100–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bhaijee F, Brown AS. Muir-Torre syndrome. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014;138:1685–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fernandez-Flores A, Peralto JLR. Mismatch repair protein expression in Fordyce granules. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2017;25:209–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Felice C, Parrini S, Chitano G, Gentile M, et al. Fordyce granules and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Gut 2005;54:1279–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ponti G, Meschieri A, Pollio A, Ruini C, et al. Fordyce granules and hyperplastic mucosal sebaceous glands as distinctive stigmata in Muir-Torre syndrome patients: characterization with reflectance confocal microscopy. J Oral Pathol Med. 2015;44:552–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gold C. Branchial cleft cyst located in the floor of the mouth. Report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1962;15:1118–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leite RB, Severo MLB, Oliveira PT, Medeiros AMC, et al. Lymphoepithelial cyst on the tongue: case report at unusual location. J Bras Patol Med Lab. 2017;53:273–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sykara M, Ntovas P, Kalogirou EM, Tosios KI, et al. Oral lymphoepithelial cyst: a clinicopathological study of 26 cases and review of the literature. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9:e1035–43.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang X, Ow A, Zhang CP, Wang L, et al. Clinical analysis of 120 cases of intraoral lymphoepithelial cyst. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;113:448–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hanemann JAC, de Carli ML, Dendena ER, Filho CE, et al. Rare case report of an aggressive follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in maxilla. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;21:475–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stacy RC, Jakobiec FA, Schoenfield L, Singh AD. Unifocal and multifocal reactive lymphoid hyperplasia vs follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexa. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:412–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jham BC, Binmadi NO, Scheper MA, Zhao XF, et al. Follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in palate: case report and literature review. J Cranio-Maxillofac Surg. 2009;37:79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meyer I. Dermoid cysts (dermoids) of the floor of the mouth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1955;8:1149–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    King RC, Smith BR, Burk JL. Dermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth: review of the literature and case reports. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;78:567–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Erich JB. Sebaceous, mucous, dermoid, and epidermoid cysts. Am J Surg. 1940;50:672–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dimtsas S, Theologie-Lygidakis N, Iatrou I. Intralingual dermoid cyst in an infant presenting swallowing and sleeping difficulties. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010;34:335–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MacNeil SD, Moxham JP. Review of floor of mouth dysontogenic cysts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:165–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pryor SG, Lewis JE, Weaver AL, Orvida LJ. Pediatric dermoid cysts of the head and neck. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:938–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dillon JR, Avillo AJ, Nelson BL. Dermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth. Head Neck Pathol. 2015;9:376–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shafer WG. Verruciform xanthoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1971;31:784–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marques YM, de Andrade CR, Machado de Sousa SC, Navarro CM. Oral verruciform xanthoma: a case report and literature review. Case Rep Pathol. 2014;2014:641015.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Philipsen HP, Reichart PA, Takata T, Ogawa I. Verruciform xanthoma—biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases from Japan. Oral Oncol. 2003;39:325–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rawal SY, Kalmar JR, Tatakis DN. Verruciform xanthoma: immunohistochemical characterization of xanthoma cell phenotypes. J Periodontol. 2007;78:504–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mannes KD, Dekle CL, Requena L, Sangueza OP. Verruciform xanthoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 1999;21:66–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bouquot JE. Common oral lesions found during a mass screening examination. J Am Dental Assoc. 1986;112:50–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schulz M, von Arx T, Altermatt HJ, Bosshardt D. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. J Endod. 2009;35:634–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Herrara D, Retamal-Valdes B, Alonso B, Feres M. Acute periodontal lesions (periodontal abscess and necrotizing periodontal diseases) and endo-periodontal lesions. J Periodontol. 2018;89:s85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Acute inflammation. Robbins and cotran pathologic basis of disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 91.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Herrera D, Roldán S, Sanz M. The periodontal abscess: a review. J Clin Periodontol. 2000;27:377–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cope A, Francis N, Wood F, Mann MK, Chestnutt IG. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 6:CD010136.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grases F, Santiago C, Simonet BM, Costa-Bauza A. Sialolithiasis: mechanism of calculi formation and etiologic factors. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;334:131–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marchal F, Kurt AM, Dulguerov P, Lehmann W. Retrograde theory in sialolithiasis formation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127:66–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Foletti JM, Graillon N, Avignon S, Guyot L, et al. Salivary calculi removal by minimally invasive techniques: a decision tree based on the diameter of the calculi and their position in the excretory duct. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;76:112–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lustmann J, Regev E, Melamed Y. Sialolithiasis—survey on 245 patients and a review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990;19:135–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zenk J, Constantinidis J, Kydles S, Hornung J, Iro H. Clinical and diagnostic findings of sialolithiasis. HNO. 1999;47:963–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huoh KC, Eisele DW. Etiologic factors in sialolithiasis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145:935–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kraaij S, Karagozoglu KH, Kenter YAG, Pijpe J, et al. Systemic diseases and the risk of developing salivary stones: a case control study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;119:539–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC. Bacterial infections. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2016. pp. 164–90.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bamgbose BO, Ruprecht A, Hellsein J, Timmons, et al. The prevalence of tonsilloliths and other soft tissue calcification in patients attending oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic of the University of Iowa. ISRN Dent. 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/839635.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Takahashi A, Sugawara C, Kudoh T, Uchida D, et al. Prevalence and imaging characteristics of palatine tonsilloliths detected by CT in 2,873 consecutive patients. Sci World J. 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/940960.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Krespi YP, Kizhner V. Laser tonsil cryptolysis: in-office 500 cases review. Am J Otolaryngol Head Neck Med Surg. 2013.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.03.006.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Alvi A, Vartanian AJ. Microscopic examination of routine tonsillectomy specimens: is it necessary. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;119:361–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Williams MD, Brown HM. The adequacy of gross pathological examination of routine tonsils and adenoids in patients 21 years old and younger. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:1053–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gomez I, Varela P, Romero A, Garcia MJ, et al. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:e272–6.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mohammed F, Thapasum A, Mohamed S, Shamaz H, et al. Yellow lesions of the oral cavity: diagnostic appraisal and management strategies. Brunei Int Med J. 2013;9:290–301.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tosios K, Rallis G, Villianatou D, Vlachodimitropoulos D. Yellow-white tumor of the floor of the mouth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:701–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Naruse T, Yanamoto S, Yamada S, Rokutanda S, et al. Lipomas of the oral cavity: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases and review of the literature. Ind J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;67:67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Furlong MA, Fanburg-Smith JC, Childers EL. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:441–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rejas RA, Campos MS, Cortes AR, Pinto DD, et al. The neural histogenetic origin of the oral granular cell tumor: an immunohistochemical evidence. Med Oral Patol Oral Circ Bucal. 2011;16:e6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vered M, Carpenter WM, Buchner A. Granular cell tumor of the oral cavity: updated immunohistochemical profile. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38:150–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ferreira JCB, Oton-Leite AF, Guidi R, Mendonca EF. Granular cell tumor mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: a case report. BMC Res Notes. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-2325-7.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Van de Loo S, Thunnissen E, Postmus P, Van der Waal I. Granular cell tumor of the oral cavity; a case series including a case of metachronous occurrence in the tongue and the lung. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20:e30–3.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    An S, Jang J, Kim MS, Park H, et al. Granular cell tumor of the gastrointestinal tract: histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 98 cases. Hum Pathol. 2015;46:813–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Solomon LW, Velez I. S-100 negative granular cell tumor of the oral cavity. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10(3):367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rawal YB, Dodson TB. S-100 negative granular cell tumor (so-called primitive polypoid non-neural granular cell tumor) of the oral cavity. Head Neck Pathol. 2017;11:404–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sreeja C, Ramakrishnan K, Vijayalakshmi D, Devi M, et al. Oral pigmentation: a review. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2015;7:s403–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Daley TD, Armstrong JE. Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases. Can J Gastroenterol. 2007;21:241–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC. Oral manifestations of systemic diseases. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2016. pp. 761–800.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kumar KPM, Nachiammai N, Madhushankari GS. Association of oral manifestations in ulcerative colitis: a pilot study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2018;22:199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jajam M, Bozzolo P, Niklander S. Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9:e1242–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Atarbashi-Moghadam S, Lotfi A, Atarbashi-Moghadam F. Pyostomatitis vegetans: a clue for diagnosis of silent Crohn’s disease. J Clin Diag Res. 2016;10:zd12–13.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stoopler ET, Sollecito TP, Chen SY. Amyloid deposition in the oral cavity: a retrospective study and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;95:674–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Silva WPP, Wastner BF, Bohn JC, Jung JE, et al. Unusual presentation of oral amyloidosis. Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;6:s282–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Angiero F, Seramondi R, Magistro S, Crippa R, et al. Amyloid deposition in the tongue: clinical and histopathological profile. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3009–14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center College of DentistryMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Virginia Commonwealth University School of DentistryRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations