The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 85, Issue 8, pp 607–612 | Cite as

Urinary Screening for Early Detection of Kidney Diseases

  • Kamlesh S. Suthar
  • Aruna V. VanikarEmail author
  • Lovelesh A. Nigam
  • Rashmi D. Patel
  • Kamal V. Kanodia
  • Umang G. Thakkar
  • Paulin A. Gandhi
  • Sheetal A. Chandak
  • Amit V Prajapati
  • Minaxi H. Patel
Original Article



Urinary screening is a simple inexpensive tool to evaluate kidney functions. The authors carried out urinary screening of school children for early detection of kidney diseases.


Children in the age group 5–15 y were screened for urinalysis. They were divided in 2 groups; group-1 included 5–10 y and group-2 included >10–15 y old children.


Urine samples of 3340(78%) out of 4283 enrolled children were tested. Abnormal samples were found in 5.75%; with proteinuria in 4.59%, pyuria in 3.29% and hematuria in 4.31%. Males constituted 47.71% in group-1 and 54.64% in group-2. Low body mass index was found in 94.1% group-1 and 78.99% group-2 children. Mild proteinuria was found in 1.2% group-1 and 2.56% group-2 children. Severe proteinuria was more in group-2 (0.77% vs. 0.06%) with female preponderance. Glucosuria was found in 1 boy of group-2. Urobilinogen was more in group-2 (0.65% vs. 0.24%) with male preponderance. Nitrituria was found in 9 girls. Pyuria (2.02% vs. 1.27%) and hematuria were more in group-2 (3.04% vs. 1.87%) with female preponderance. Combined proteinuria and hematuria (0.42% vs. 0.24%) as well bacteruria and fungaluria were more in group-2 (4.11% vs. 1.39%). Six of 192 children with abnormal urinary findings were treated; 1 for urinary calculus and 5 for urinary tract infection.


Abnormal urinary findings were more common in children >10 y of age. Thus urinary screening program of children can become useful for early detection of kidney diseases and contribute towards building up of a healthy nation.


Urinary screening Dipstick urine analysis Hematuria Proteinuria Pediatric kidney diseases Pyuria 



Body mass index


Chronic kidney diseases


Diabetes mellitus


End stage renal disease


Nephrotic syndrome


Urinary tract infection



The authors are grateful to all Hospital information system department, Pediatricians and Nephrologists who gave their valuable guidance in designing this study on the occasion of World Kidney Day-2016, and to Statisticians and lab staff members who assisted in carrying out the lab analysis. The authorities of School Health Program under Govt. of Gujarat and members of the Institutional Review Board also deserve special thanks since they permitted this study and Govt. granted financial support for carrying out this study.


KSS: Designed the study and was the principal investigator for carrying and implementing the study; AVV: Approved the study, supervised all the lab work and wrote and finalized the manuscript; LAN, RDP, KVK, UGT, PAG, SAC, AVP, MHP: Contributed in study design, carrying out the tests and study and in writing the manuscript. AVV will act as guarantor for the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Consent of parents/guardians/School authorities/Institutional Review Board


Conflict of Interest


Source of Funding

School Health Program, Govt. of Gujarat.

Supplementary material

12098_2017_2494_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (241 kb)
Annexure 1 Questionnaire- English language (PDF 241 kb)
12098_2017_2494_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (278 kb)
Annexure 2 Questionnaire- Local language (PDF 277 kb)


  1. 1.
    Trivedi HL, Vanikar AV, Patel HV, et al. High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a semi-urban population of western India. Clin Kidney J. 2016;9:438–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yanagihara T, Kuroda N, Hayakawa M, et al. Epidemiology of school urinary screening over a 30 year period in Tokyo. Pediatr Int. 2007;49:570–6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murakami M, Yamamoto H, Ueda Y, Murakami K, Yamauchi K. Urinary screening of elementary and junior high-school children over a 13-year period in Tokyo. Pediatr Nephrol. 1991;5:50–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murakami M, Hayakawa M, Yanagihara T, Hukunaga Y. Proteinuria screening for children. Kidney Int Suppl. 2005;94:S23–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oberoi SS. Updating income ranges for Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale for the year 2014. Indian J Public Health. 2015;59:156–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vijaykumar M, Nammalwar BR, Prahlad N. Prevention of chronic kidney disease in children. Indian J Nephrol. 2007;17:47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gheissari A, Hemmatzadeh S, Merrikhi A, Tehrani SF, Madihi Y. Chronic kidney disease in children: a report from a tertiary care center over 11y. J Nephropathol. 2012;1:177–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cho BS, Kim SD, Choi YM, Kang HH. School urinalysis screening in Korea: prevalence of chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001;16:1126–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cho BS, Kim SD. School urinalysis screening in Korea. Nephrology. 2007;12:S3–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhai YH, Xu H, Zhu GH, et al. Efficacy of urine screening at school: experience in shanghai. China Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22:2073–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yap HK, Quek CM, Shen Q, Joshi V, Chia KS. Role of urinary screening programmes in children in the prevention of chronic kidney disease. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2005;34:3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakr A, Sarhan A, Hammad A, et al. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among primary school children in Egypt. World J Pediatr. 2007;3:214–7.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin CY, Hsieh CC, Chen WP, Yang LY, Wang HH. The underlying diseases and follow-up in Taiwanese children screened by urinalysis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001;16:232–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hajar F, Taleb M, Aoun B, Shatila A. Dipstick urine analysis screening among asymptomatic school children. North Am J Med Sci. 2011;3:179–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Parakh P, Bhatta NK, Mishra OP, et al. Urinary screening for detection of renal abnormalities in asymptomatic school children. Nephrurol Mon. 2012;4:551–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edress B, Tayeb M, Shandeedi M. Prevalence of hematuria among school children in Makkah and Baha in Saudi Arabia. J Med J. 2013;47:20–5.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hogg RJ. Screening for CKD in children: a global controversy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:509–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kliegman. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    White B. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection in children. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83:409–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamlesh S. Suthar
    • 1
  • Aruna V. Vanikar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lovelesh A. Nigam
    • 1
  • Rashmi D. Patel
    • 1
  • Kamal V. Kanodia
    • 1
  • Umang G. Thakkar
    • 2
  • Paulin A. Gandhi
    • 1
  • Sheetal A. Chandak
    • 1
  • Amit V Prajapati
    • 1
  • Minaxi H. Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Lab Medicine, Transfusion Services & ImmunohematologyG.R. Doshi and K.M Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre and Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (IKDRC-ITS)AhmedabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell TherapyG.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre and Dr. H.L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences (IKDRC-ITS)AhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations