Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 96–99 | Cite as

Antimicrobial Activity of Amino-Derivatized Cationic Polysaccharides

  • Sanjay K. S. Patel
  • Jung-Hoe Kim
  • Vipin C. KaliaEmail author
  • Jung-Kul LeeEmail author
Short Communications


To improve the antimicrobial property of chitosan, water-soluble chitosan modified in their quaternary ammonium groups were synthesized. The antimicrobial properties were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis. The activities increased with increasing cationic charges and the length of the alkyl chain as follows amino-chitosan, dimethylaminoethyl-chitosan, dimethylpropyl amino-chitosan, dimethylamino-1-propyl-chitosan, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-chitosan, and quaternized DEAE-chitosan. The modified cationic chitosans showed high antimicrobial property against B. subtilis—Gram-positive bacteria, but were less active towards yeast (C. tropicalis and S. cerevisiae) and E. coli—Gram-negative bacteria. The simple structure of the Gram-positive bacteria may explain why the cationic chitosan derivatives are more active towards B. subtilis than yeast and E. coli. The target sites of the chitosan derivatives are assumed to be the cytoplasmic membranes of microorganisms. The antimicrobial activities were strongly dependent on the cationic charge and the molecular weight. It can be suggested that these cationic chitosan derivatives have potential as antimicrobial agents.


Antimicrobial activity Bacillus subtilis Cationic chitosan derivatives Gram-negative bacteria Gram-positive bacteria 



This research was supported by basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2018H1D3A2001746, 2013M3A6A8073184). This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (20153030091450). This research was supported by the KU Research Professor program of Konkuk University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicting interests associated with this publication.

Supplementary material

12088_2018_764_MOESM1_ESM.doc (182 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 182 kb)


  1. 1.
    Kalia VC (2013) Quorum sensing inhibitors: an overview. Biotechnol Adv 31:224–245. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kalia VC (2014) Microbes, antimicrobials and resistance: the battle goes on. Indian J Microbiol 54:1–2. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kalia VC, Purohit HJ (2011) Quenching the quorum sensing system: potential antibacterial drug targets. Crit Rev Microbiol 37:121–140. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kalia VC, Prakash J, Koul S, Ray S (2017) Simple and rapid method for detecting biofilm forming bacteria. Indian J Microbiol 57:109–111. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Otari SV, Patel SKS, Jeong JH, Lee JH, Lee J-K (2016) A green chemistry approach for synthesizing thermostable antimicrobial peptide-coated gold nanoparticles immobilized in an alginate biohydrogel. RSC Adv 6:86808–86816. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Otari SV, Pawar SH, Patel SKS, Singh RK, Kim S-Y, Lee J-H, Zhang L, Lee J-K (2017) Canna edulis leaf extract-mediated preparation of stabilized silver nanoparticles: characterization, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity studies. J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:731–738. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patel SKS, Choi SH, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2016) Large-scale aerosol-assisted synthesis of biofriendly Fe2O3 yolk-shell particles: a promising support for enzyme immobilization. Nanoscale 8:6728–6738. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patel SKS, Choi SH, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2017) Eco-friendly composite of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide particles for efficient enzyme immobilization. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9:2213–2222. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patel SKS, Anwar MZ, Kumar A, Otari SV, Pagolu RT, Kim S-Y, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2018) Fe2O3 yolk-shel particle-based laccase biosensor for efficient detection of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Biochem Eng J 132:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kong M, Chen XG, Xing K, Park HJ (2010) Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: a state of the art review. Int J Food Microbiol 144:51–63. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lv X, Liu C, Song S, Qiao Y, Hu Y, Li P, Li Z, Sun S (2018) Construction of a quaternary ammonium salt platform with different alkyl groups for antibacterial and biosensor applications. RSC Adv 8:2941–2949. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Patel SKS, Selvaraj C, Mardina P, Jeong J-H, Kalia VC, Kang Y-C, Lee J-K (2016) Enhancement of methanol production from synthetic gas mixture by Methylosinus sporium through covalent immobilization. Appl Energy 171:383–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patel SKS, Mardina P, Kim D, Kim S-Y, Kalia VC, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2016) Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas. Bioresour Technol 218:202–208. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patel SKS, Singh R, Kumar A, Jeong JH, Jeong SH, Kalia VC, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2017) Biological methanol production by immobilized Methylocella tundrae using simulated biohythane as a feed. Bioresour Technol 241:922–927. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patel SKS, Kondaveeti S, Otari SV, Pagolu RT, Jeong SH, Kim SC, Cho BK, Kang YC, Lee JK (2018) Repeated batch methanol production from a simulated biogas mixture using immobilized Methylocystis bryophila. Energy 145:477–485. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chethan PD, Vishalakshi B, Sathish L, Ananda K, Poojary B (2013) Preparation of substituted quaternized arylfuran chitosan derivatives and their antimicrobial activity. Int J Biol Macromol 59:158–164. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anush SM, Vishalakshi B, Kalluraya B, Manju N (2018) Synthesis of pyrazole-based Schiff bases of Chitosan: evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Int J Biol Macromol 119:446–452. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mohamed NA, El-Ghany Abd (2018) Novel aminohydrazide cross-linked chitosan filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as antimicrobial agents. Int J Biol Macromol 115:651–662. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations