Advertisement

Detection of Wolbachia Phage (WO) in Indian Lac Insect [Kerria lacca (Kerr.)] and Its Implications

  • S. Kaushik
  • K. K. Sharma
  • R. Ramani
  • Suman Lakhanpaul
Short Communications

Abstract

Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterium induces reproductive alterations in its hosts such as feminization of males, male killing and parthenogenesis. It is the most diverse endosymbiont infecting more than 70% of the insects ranging from pests to pollinators. Kerria lacca—a hemipteran is a sedentary, oriental insect known to produce lac—the only resin of animal origin. The present study was conducted to screen the presence of Wolbachia and its associated phages in the two infrasubspecific forms (four insect lines) of K. lacca viz. kusmi and rengeeni differing from each other on the basis of host preference. Wolbachia and its associated phage were found to be prevalent in all the insect lines analyzed. We, hereby, report the presence of WO-phage (Wolbachia phage) for the first time in K. lacca. Further, phylogenetic data differentiated the kusmi and rengeeni infrasubspecific forms into two different groups on the basis of WO-phage sequences.

Keywords

Wolbachia phage Wolbachia Kerria lacca Lac 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financially support by NAIP-ICAR, New Delhi and R&D Grant by University of Delhi is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Werren JH, O’Neill SL (1997) The evolution of heritable symbionts. In: O’Neill SL, Hoffmann AA, Werren JH (eds) Influential passengers: inherited microorganisms and arthropod reproduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–41Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jeyaprakash A, Hoy MA (2000) Long PCR improves Wolbachia DNA amplification: wsp sequences found in 76% of sixty-three arthropod species. Insect Mol Biol 9:393–405.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00203.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Werren JH, Baldo L, Clark ME (2008) Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology. Nat Rev Microbiol 6:741–751.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1969 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Werren JH (1997) Biology of Wolbachia. Annu Rev Entomol 42:587–609.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.587 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stouthamer R, Breeuwert JA, Luck RF, Werren JH (1993) Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with parthenogenesis. Nature 361:66–68.  https://doi.org/10.1038/361066a0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hurst GD, Schulenburg JHG, Majerus TM, Bertrand D, Zakharov IA, Baungaard J, Volkl W, Stouthamer R, Majerus ME (1999) Invasion of one insect species, Adalia bipunctata by two different male-killing bacteria. Insect Mol Biol 8:133–139.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0604.000402 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rousset F, Bouchon D, Pintureau B, Juchault P, Solignac M (1992) Wolbachia endosymbionts responsible for various alterations of sexuality in arthropods. Proc R Soc Lond B 250:91–98.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1992.0135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Werren JH, Windsor D, Guo LR (1995) Distribution of Wolbachia among neotropical arthropods. Proc R Soc Lond B 262:197–204.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1995.0196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stouthamer R, Breeuwert JAJ, Hurst GDD (1999) Wolbachia pipientis: microbial manipulation of arthropod reproduction. Annu Rev Microbiol 53:71–102.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.71 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bordenstein SR, Wernegreen JJ (2004) Bacteriophage flux in endosymbionts (Wolbachia): infection frequency, lateral transfer, and recombination rates. Mol Biol Evol 21:1981–1991.  https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msh211 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu M, Sun LV, Vamathevan J, Riegler M, Deboy R, Brownlie JC, McGraw EA, Martin W, Esser C, Ah-madinejad N (2004) Phylogenomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: a streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements. PLoS Biol 2:0327–0341.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Walker TO, Neill SL (2011) Wolbachia and the biological control of mosquito-borne disease. EMBO Rep 12:508–518.  https://doi.org/10.1038/embor.2011.84 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ros VI, Fleming VM, Feil EJ, Breeuwer JA (2009) How diverse is the genus Wolbachia? Multiple-gene sequencing reveals a putatively new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1036–1043.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01109-08 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang GH, Jia LY, Xiao JH, Huang DW (2016) Discovery of a new Wolbachia supergroup in cave spider species and the lateral transfer of phage WO among distant hosts. Infect Genet Evol. 41:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.03.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gavotte L, Vavre F, Henri H, Ravallec R, Stouthamer R, Bouletreau R (2004) Diversity, distribution and specificity of WO phage infection in Wolbachia of four insect species. Insect Mol Biol 13:147–153.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0962-1075.2004.00471.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vashishtha A, Sharma KK, Lakhanpaul S (2011) Co-existence, phylogeny and putative role of Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiont (YLS) in Kerria lacca (Kerr). Curr Microbiol 63:206–212.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-011-9961-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sharma KK, Ramani R (1999) An update on synoptic catalogue of lac insects (Homoptera: Tachardiidae). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 96:438–443Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sharma KK, Jaiswal AK, Kumar KK (2006) Role of lac culture in biodiversity conservation: issue at stake and conservation strategy. Curr Sci 91:894–898Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bordenstein SR, Marshall ML, Fry AJ, Kim U, Wernegreen JJ (2006) The tripartite associations between bacteriophage, Wolbachia and arthropods. PLoS Pathog 2:e43.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.0020043 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indira Gandhi National Tribal UniversityAmarkantakIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums (IINRG), NamkumRanchiIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations