Indian Journal of Microbiology

, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 137–146 | Cite as

Microbial Inoculants Assisted Growth of Chrysopogon zizanioides Promotes Phytoremediation of Salt Affected Soil

  • Umesh Pankaj
  • Durgesh Narain Singh
  • Geetu Singh
  • Rajesh Kumar VermaEmail author
Original Research Article


Restoration of salt-affected soil through cultivation Chrysopogon zizanioides is a promising approach. The two way benefit of such an approach is that reclamation of salt-affected soil concomitant to improve plant growth and increased yield of essential oil produced in the plants roots. Earlier studies showed physiological changes and reduced growth of C. zizanioides under salinity. In the present study, plant growth promoting microorganisms viz. Pseudomonas monteilii, Bacillus megaterium, Azotobacter chroococcum and Rhizophagus intraradices were used as bio-inoculants for cultivation of C. zizanioides under salt-affected soil. Bio-inoculants in combination with vermicompost significantly increased the growth and productivity of C. zizanioides under salt-affected soil, and simultaneously improved soil health. When compared to control, the soil physico-chemical and biological properties of bio-inoculants treated plants was significantly improved. The reclamation of salt-affected soil was evident by the significant decrease in the level of soil pH (11.0%), electrical conductivity (23.5%), sodium adsorption ratio (15.3%), and exchangeable sodium percent (12.4%) of bio-inoculants treated plants. The improvement of soil cation exchange capacity indicated the decrease in soil salinity. Whereas increase in the microbial count (four-fold), AMF spores (447 spores), dehydrogenase (six-fold), acid (two-fold) and alkaline phosphatase (five-fold) activities in rhizosphere soil of bio-inoculant treated plants indicated the improved biological properties. A positive correlation of plant biomass production to soil organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, available phosphorus and cation exchange capacity depicted improved nutrients content in rhizosphere soil of bio-inoculant treated plants. The findings of this study suggest that P. monteilii and R. intraradices with vermicompost can be effectively used as bio-inoculants for encouragement of phytoremediation in salt-affected soil.


Microbial inoculants Phytoremediation Plant growth Chrysopogon zizanioides Salt-affected soil 



The authors are thankful to director CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow (India) for providing all the necessary facilities under institutional network Project-BSC0110.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12088_2018_776_MOESM1_ESM.tif (1020 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (TIFF 1019 kb)
12088_2018_776_MOESM2_ESM.docx (25 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Microbiologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umesh Pankaj
    • 1
  • Durgesh Narain Singh
    • 2
  • Geetu Singh
    • 1
  • Rajesh Kumar Verma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceCSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Division of BiotechnologyCSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsLucknowIndia

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