A scheme of flexible and reversible information-hiding in SMVQ mechanism

  • Cheng-Ta HuangEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Issue on IoT System Technologies based on Quality of Experience


Information hiding refers to concealing data into cover media to prevent the private message from being stolen in peer-to-peer networks, mobile communication, and the cloud environment. Vector quantization (VQ) provides one means for this purpose; a distortion is created between the raw media and VQ compressed media. In this study, we proposed a flexible side-match vector quantization (SMVQ) information-hiding method. By using this method, the private message can be embedded into the distortion, and the visual quality of the stego media is improved. The proposed method achieves an improvement of about 13.13% (i.e., +3.73 dB) in the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the stego image and an improvement of about 59,355 bits of embedding capacity on average compared with Wang et al.’s method. The experiment results verify the significant contributions of this study to the field of SMVQ-based information hiding, especially with regard to the image quality of the stego image and the embedding capacity.


Side match vector quantization (SMVQ) Image distortion Information hiding Flexible embedding 



This research was partially supported by Oriental Institute of Technology under the Grant RD106-7-11-102. The author would like to thank the Prof. CH YANG for providing some valuable comments and Mr. MC Tsai for offering the part of simulations.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oriental Institute of TechnologyNew Taipei CityTaiwan

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