A FAILED CANCER PARADIGM: implications for cancer risk assessment and patients
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This commentary highlights the unique failures of environmental regulatory standards and related remedial actions to significantly reduce human cancer risks and the failure of cancer therapeutics to significantly impact cancer incidence and survival statistics despite vast resources allocated to both areas over the past half century. These dramatic institutional, scientific, medical, and regulatory failures suggest that current scientific understandings of cancer and its causation are seriously flawed and in need of a new objective re-appraisal.
KeywordsCancer Precautionary principle Dose response Linear non-threshold Hormesis Risk assessment
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. EJC acknowledges longtime support from the US Air Force (AFOSR FA9550-13-1-0047) and ExxonMobil Foundation (S18200000000256). The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing policies or endorsement, either expressed or implied. Sponsors had no involvement in study design, collection, analysis, interpretation, writing and decision to and where to submit for publication consideration.