Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 273–275 | Cite as

Two decades (1998–2018) of research Progress on Hormesis: advancing biological understanding and enabling novel applications

  • Walter J. Kozumbo
  • Edward J. CalabreseEmail author


This commentary briefly summarizes the extraordinary resurgence of hormesis within the biological, biomedical, toxicological and risk assessment domains over the past two decades. It places this resurgence within the context of challenging the scientific validity of the threshold and linear dose responses. It argues that conducting research on mechanisms that actuate and regulate the stimulatory response features of hormesis will provide the knowledge needed to develop potentially transformational applications aimed at protecting and enhancing biological resiliency as well as treating/curing a multitude of diverse medical conditions.


Hormesis Hormetic Threshold dose response Linear non-threshold dose response LNT Biphasic dose response Risk assessment 



EJC acknowledges longtime support from the US Air Force (AFOSR FA9550-13-1-0047) and ExxonMobil Foundation (S18200000000256). The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing policies or endorsement, either expressed or implied. Sponsors had no involvement in study design, collection, analysis, interpretation, writing and decision to and where to submit for publication consideration.

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Conflict of interests



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Copyright information

© The International CCN Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health SciencesUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

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