Hepatology International

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 22–24 | Cite as

New generation cancer therapy: right direction for sure with some uncertainty

  • Yoshiyuki UenoEmail author
Invited Commentary

The recent case report by Zacharakis et al. highlights the overwhelming effectiveness of sophisticated cancer immunotherapy along with immune checkpoint inhibitors [1]. The use of this logical approach helped a patient recover completely from advanced breast cancer, as planned by the researchers. This is one of the most famous case reports to date, signifying the landmark triumph of modern anti-cancer immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy was theoretically introduced in the early 1980s or even earlier. However, because of their limited clinical effectiveness, the first-generation cancer immunotherapy did not prevail in the clinical settings. Conversely, the advancement in the understanding of the mechanism of T cell activation has further enabled the development of immune checkpoint inhibitory drugs. Notably, anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and anti-PD-1 antibodies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) are already approved for the treatment of various solid tumors. For the treatment of...


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Conflict of interest

The author does not have any potential conflict of interest regarding this article.

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This article is not applicable to document approval from IRB for research involving human participants and/or animals, and statement regarding obtaining informed consent.


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Copyright information

© Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GastroenterologyYamagata University Faculty of MedicineYamagataJapan

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