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Transnasal Transsphenoidal Approach for Pituitary Tumors: An ENT Perspective

Abstract

Endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal (ETNTS) approach was first described in 1992 and is standard approach for the resection of benign pituitary adenomas. This prospective study aims in incidence and preoperative assessment of extent of the pituitary adenoma, peroperative findings of transnasal transsphenoidal excision, techniques of skull base repair, complications and its management in a tertiary centre. A prospective analysis from Jan 2017 to May 2019, of patients undergoing ETNTS approach of pituitary adenomas was made in terms of incidence in various age-groups, type of adenoma, operative findings including CSF leak, repair of the skull base defect, complications encountered and its management was done in a tertiary care centre and compared with the present literature. A total of 141 patients underwent ETNTS, with highest number of cases found in 41–50 years age-group with mean age of 42.6 years. Male: Female ratio was 1.6. Macroadenoma was in 123 patients while 18 had microadenoma, of these 63.74% were functional adenoma, highest of GH secreting, while 36.26% were non-functional. Mean surgical time was 98.4 min ± 21.2 min. Peroperative CSF leak was in 30.5% cases in various grades. Closure techniques included use of fat, multilayer techniques, Hadad’s flap and gasket technique as per the type of CSF leak. Neurological and rhinological complications were 6.38% each. This study is focused on the ENT perspective of the endoscopic transnasal trans-sphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas. The reduced rate of morbidity and complications is encouraging. The endoscopic skull base defect closure is challenging and requires skill, meticulous approach and synchronised team work in order to achieve a favourable outcome. The incidence of CSF leak can be minimised and if encountered has to be dealt in an organised manner, thus contributing to a reduced rate of complications. The complications encountered must be foreseen and managed with a proficient approach.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to oblige for the support provided by the Department of Neurosurgery and the Department of Anaesthesia, Army Hospital (R&R), Delhi Cantt in conducting this study.

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Correspondence to Vaibhav A. Chandankhede.

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None declared.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee.

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Chandankhede, V.A., Singh, S.K., Roy, R. et al. Transnasal Transsphenoidal Approach for Pituitary Tumors: An ENT Perspective. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-020-01803-2

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Keywords

  • Pituitary adenoma
  • Transnasal transsphenoidal approach
  • Postoperative complications