Demography and Pattern of Tobacco Usage in Carcinoma of Upper Aerodigestive Tract

  • Sachin Gandhi
  • K. C. ArunEmail author
  • Rashmi Rahul Bagul
  • Anuj Shah
  • Supreetha Shenoy
Original Article


Upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) malignancies account for significant proportion of all malignancies. The aim of the study is to know the demography and patterns of tobacco consumption and the proportion of non-tobacco consumers in patients with UADT carcinoma. Patient diagnosed with primary UADT carcinoma visiting outpatient department in a tertiary centre from February 2009 to May 2011 were included in the study. 150 patients were documented with UADT carcinoma and analysed. Among these 133 were males and 17 were female. 40% of them had smoking, 25% had smokeless tobacco, 13% had both smoking and smokeless tobacco and 22% hadn’t had any form of tobacco. Carcinoma larynx is the most common site and glottis is the commonest subsite. Most individuals who developed UADT carcinoma have used tobacco in some form. The high proportion of UADT carcinoma in non-tobacco consumer is alarming.


UADT malignancy Tobacco Non-tobacco consumer Glottis 



  1. 1.
    Muir C, Weiland L (1995) Upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Cancer 75:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO (2004) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. In: Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking, vol. 82. International Agency for research on cancer, WHO, LyonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    WHO/Cancer. WHO. Available from:
  4. 4.
    Vineis P, Alavanja M, Buffler P, Fontham E, Franceschi S, Gao YT et al (2004) Tobacco and cancer: recent epidemiological evidencce. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brunnemann KD, Hoffmann D (1992) Chemical composition of smokeless tobacco products. In: Smokeless tobacco of health. An international perspective. National cancer institute, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    West R, Marques CR, Marques Filho MF, Marques AB, Di Pietro G, Rios-santos F (2014) Association of the GSTT1 polymorphism in upper aerodigestive tract cancer with tobacco smoking. Genet Mol Res 13:528–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hodge KM, Flynn MB, Drury T (1985) Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract in nonusers of tobacco. Cancer 55:1232–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Anderson WF, Gillison ML (2008) Incidence trends for human papillomavirus-related and -unrelated oral squamous cell carcinomas in the United States. J Clin Oncol 26:612–619. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pytynia KB, Dahlstrom KR, Sturgis EM (2014) Epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol 50:380–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Platek AJ, Cannioto RA, Etter JL, Kim J, Joseph JM et al (2017) The association of lifetime physical inactivity with head and neck cancer: a hospital-based case-control analysis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 274(10):3773–3780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shu CC, Mazda JE, Cristina B, Renato T et al (2012) Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the inhance consortium. Cancer Causes Control 23(1):69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cadoni G, Bocia S, Peterelli L, Giannantoni PD, Arzani D et al (2012) A review of genetic epidemiology of head and neck cancer related to polymorphisms in metabolic genes, cell cycle control and alcohol metabolism. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 32(1):1–11Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wynder EL, Covey LS (1976) Environment factors in cancer of the larynx. Cancer 38:1591–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wiseman SM, Loree TR (2003) Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-smokers and non-drinkers: an analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes. Ann Surg Oncol 10:551–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gillison ML, Koch WM, Capone RB, Spafford M, Westra WH, Wu L, Zahurak ML, Daniel RW, Viglione M, Symer DE et al (2000) Evidence for a causal association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:709–720. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Junor E, Kerr G, Oniscu A, Campbell S, Kouzeli I, Gourley C et al (2012) Benefit of chemotherapy as part of treatment for HPV DNA-positive but P16-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Br J Cancer 106:358–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maryam A, Mohammad SK, Ghasem AS, Marzieh A, Hamed RK (2017) Pesticide exposure and head and neck cancers: a case-control study in an agricultural region. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 29(94):275–285Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koch WM, Lango M (1999) Head and neck cancer in non-smokers: a distinct clinical and molecular entity. Laryngoscope 109:1544–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spitz MR, Fueger JJ, Goepfert H et al (1988) Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Cancer 61:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wynder EL, Stellman SD (1979) Impact of long term filter cigarette usage on lung and larynx cancer risk: a case control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 62:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burch JD, Howe GR (1981) Tobacco, alcohol, asbestos and nickel in the etiology of cancer of the larynx: a case control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 67:1219–1224Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Otolaryngologists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LaryngologyDeenanath Mangeshkar HospitalPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of ENT-HN SurgeryNational Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS)KathmanduNepal

Personalised recommendations