With the popularity of exclusive transcanal endoscopic ear surgery, the need for a suitable and affordable surgical training model has grown. To develop an ex vivo animal model for exclusive endoscopic ear surgery. In an experimental study, we studied goat middle ear anatomy in 8 specimens to assess the similarity with the human middle ear as a model for two handed endoscopic ear surgery with endoscope holders. After confirming its suitability, we have developed a surgical training program for grommet insertion, canaloplasty, myringoplasty, butterfly tympanoplasty, ossiculoplasty, atticotomy. The goat model is suitable for two handed endoscopic ear surgery using endoscope holder. We describe a novel, exclusively two handed endoscopic approach in an ex vivo animal model for middle ear surgery. The proposed surgical program will guide the trainee endoscopic ear surgeon for a step by step through the main otologic procedures to enhance his or her surgical skills.
Goat model Middle ear anatomy Two handed endoscopic ear surgery Endoscope holders
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This study was not financially supported from external sources.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Institutional Ethics Committee has approved the study.
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