Advertisement

The Relation of Physical Activity and Self-Rated Health in Older Age - Cross Country Analysis Results from SHARE

  • Eric FaßEmail author
  • Torsten Schlesinger
Article

Abstract

This study analyses the influence of individual and socio-structural resources on the relation of physical activity and self-rated health in older age. Furthermore, countryspecific differences regarding the direction and strength of these influence structures will be analysed. Based on the sixth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE), a hierarchical multiple ordered regression model and 15 country-specific regression models were estimated to test our hypotheses. The sample consisted of 32,282 retired people from 14 European countries plus Israel at least 65 years of age. After adjusting for individual and socio-structural resources, a higher level of physical activity was associated with better self-rated health. Compared to the unadjusted model, the relation was less strong but remained significant. Particularly chronic diseases, limitations in the activities of daily living and self-rated household income affected the relation of physical activity and self-rated health. The international comparison shows country-specific differences regarding the strength of the relations, and differences in the direction of the effects. Individual and socio-structural resources are significant determinants regarding the relation of physical activity and self-rated health in older age. Therefore, preventive (health) care for the elderly should be focused more on creating structural and socioeconomic conditions, enabling the elderly to make choices that address their health needs, not least being physically active (or by regular physical activities).

Keywords

Self-rated health Physical activity Older age SHARE Cross-country study 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Adejumo, A. O., & Adetunji, A. A. (2013). Application of ordinal logistic regression in the study of students’ performance. Mathematical Theory and Modeling, 3(11), 10–19.Google Scholar
  2. Allender, S., Cowburn, G., & Foster, C. (2006). Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: A review of qualitative studies. Health Education Research, 21, 826–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, P. D. (1999). Comparing logit and probit coefficients across groups. Sociological Methods & Research, 28, 186–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avendano, M., Jürges, H., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2009). Educational level and changes in health across Europe: Longitudinal results from SHARE. Journal of European Social Policy, 19, 301–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bamia, C., Orfanos, P., Juerges, H., Schöttker, B., Brenner, H., Lorbeer, R., Aadahl, M., Matthews, C. E., Klinaki, E., Katsoulis, M., Lagiou, P., Bueno-de-mesquita, H. B., Eriksson, S., Mons, U., Saum, K. U., Kubinova, R., Pajak, A., Tamosiunas, A., Malyutina, S., Gardiner, J., Peasey, A., de Groot, L. C. P. G. M., Wilsgaard, T., Boffetta, P., Trichopoulou, A., & Trichopoulos, D. (2017). Self-rated health and all-cause and cause-specific mortality of older adults. Individual data meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in the CHANCES consortium. Maturitas, 103, 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger, N., Heyden, J. V. d., & Oyen, H. V. (2015). The global activity limitation indicator and self-rated health: Two complementary predictors of mortality. Archives of Public Health, 73, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Börsch-Supan, A., Gruber, S., Hunkler, C., Stuck S., & Neumann, J. (2017). EasyShare. Guide to easyShare release 6.0.0.  https://doi.org/10.6103/SHARE.easy.600.
  8. Brant, R. (1990). Assessing proportionality in the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Biometrics, 46, 1171–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breuer, C., & Wicker, P. (2008). Demographic and economic factors influencing inclusion in the German sport system. A microanalysis of the years 1985 to 2005. European Journal for Sport and Society, 5, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatterji, S., Byles, J., Cutler, D., Seeman, T., & Verdes, E. (2015). Health, functioning, and disability in older adults – Present status and future implications. The Lancet, 385(9967), 563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coenders, F., van Mensvoort, C., Kraaykamp, G., & Breedveld, K. (2017). Does sport-participation improve health? A panel analysis on the role of educational attainment, economic deprivation and work–family load. European Journal for Sport and Society, 14(1), 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cumming, E., & Henry, W. H. (1961). Growing old. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  13. Cutler, S. J., & Coward, R. T. (1988). Residence differences in the health status of elders. The Journal of Rural Health, 4, 11–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-0361.1988.tb00175.x .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dallmeyer, S., Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2017). How an aging society affects the economic costs of inactivity in Germany: Empirical evidence and projections. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s11556-017-0187-1 .
  15. Deaton, A. S., & Paxson, C. H. (1998). Aging and inequality in income and health. The American Economic Review, 88, 248–253.Google Scholar
  16. Dionigi, R. A., & Gard, M. (2018). Sport for all ages? Weighing the evidence. In R. A. Dionigi & M. Gard (Eds.), Sport and physical activity across the lifespan - critical perspectives (pp. 1–20). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Drewnoski, A., & Darmon, N. (2005). Food choices and diet costs: An economic analysis. Journal of Nutrition, 135, 900–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eurostat (2017). Population structure and ageing. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Population_structure_and_ageing. Accessed 26 Sept 2017.
  19. Gajewski, P. D., & Falkenstein, M. (2015). Lifelong physical activity and executive functions in older age assessed by memory based task switching. Neuropsychologia, 73, 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grossman, M. (1972). On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Journal of Political Economy, 80(2), 223–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kohler, U., & Kreuter, F. (2012). Datenanalyse mit Stata. Allgemeine Konzepte der Datenanalyse und ihre praktische Anwendung, 4. Auflage [Data analysis with stata. General concepts of data analysis and their practical application, 4th edition]. München: Oldenbourg Verlag.Google Scholar
  23. Kohn, J. L., & Averett, S. L. (2014). The effect of relationship status on health with dynamic health and persistent relationships. Journal of Health Economics, 36, 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kraaykamp, G., Oldenkamp, M., & Breedveld, K. (2013). Starting a sport in the Netherlands: A lifecourse analysis of the effects of individual, parental and partner characteristics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(2), 153–170.Google Scholar
  25. Krug, S., Jordan, S., Mensink, G. B. M., Müters, S., Finger, J., & Lampert, T. (2013). Körperliche Aktivität: Ergebnisse der Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland (DEGS1) [Physical activity: Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz, 56, 765–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lehnert, K., Sudeck, G., & Conzelmann, A. (2012). Subjective well-being and exercise in the second half of life: A critical review of theoretical approaches. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 9, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mackenbach, J., Bakker, M., Kunst, A., & Diderichsen, F. (2002). Socioeconomic inequalities in health in Europe: An overview, reducing inequalities in health: A European perspective (pp. 3–24). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Mainous, A. G., & Kohrs, F. P. (1995). A comparison of health status between rural and urban adults. Journal of Community Health, 20(5), 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin, M., & Kliegel, M. (2010). Psychologische Grundlagen der Gerontologie, 3., überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage [Psychological foundations of gerontology, 3rd, revised and expanded edition]. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer GmbH.Google Scholar
  30. Newton, N. J., Ryan, L. H., King, R. T., & Smith, J. (2014). Cohort differences in the marriage-health relationship for midlife women. Social Science & Medicine, 116, 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nosraty, L., Jylhä, M., Raittila, T., & Lumme-Sandt, K. (2015). Perceptions by the oldest old of successful aging, vitality 90+ study. Journal of Aging Studies, 32, 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., & Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviours. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robert Koch Institut (Hrsg.) (2017). Gesundheitliche Ungleichheit in verschiedenen Lebensphasen. Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes. (Gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis) [Health inequalities in different phases of life. Health coverage of the federal government (Jointly supported by RKI and Destatis)]. Berlin: RKI.Google Scholar
  34. Robert Koch-Institut (Hrsg.). (2015). Gesundheit in Deutschland. Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes (Gemeinsam getragen von RKI und Destatis) [Health in Germany. Health coverage of the federal government (Jointly supported by RKI and Destatis)]. Berlin: RKI.Google Scholar
  35. Rohde, N., Tang, K. K., Osberg, L., & Rao, D. P. (2017). Is it vulnerability or economic insecurity that matters for health? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 134, 307–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ross, C. E., & Wu, C. L. (1995). The links between education and health. American Sociological Review, 60(5), 719–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schnittker, J. (2004). Education and the changing shape of the income gradient in health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45(3), 286–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Studer, F., Schlesinger, T., & Engel, C. (2011). Analysing socio-economic and cultural determinants of sport participation in Switzerland from 2000 to 2008. European Journal of Sport and Society, 8(3), 147–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Szybalska, A., Broczek, K., Puzianowska-Kuznicka, M., Slusarczyk, P., Chudek, J., Skalska, A., & Mossakowska, M. (2018). Self-rated health and its association with all-cause mortality of older adults in Poland: The PolSenior project. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 79, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Verropoulou, G. (2012). Determinants of change in self-rated health among older adults in Europe: A longitudinal perspective based on SHARE data. European Journal of Ageing, 9, 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, S., Ungvari, G. S., Forester, B. P., Chiu, H. F. K., Wu, Y., Kou, C., Fu, Y., Qi, Y., Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Yu, Y., Li, B., & Xiang, Y. T. (2017). Gender differences in general mental health, smoking, drinking and chronic diseases in older adults in Jilin province, China. Psychiatry Research, 251, 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wanner, M., Tarnutzer, S., Martin, B. W., Braun, J., Rohrmann, S., Bopp, M., & Faeh, D. (2014). Impact of different domains of physical activity on cause-specific mortality: A longitudinal study. Preventive Medicine, 62, 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Weed, M. (2016). Should we privilege sport for health? The comparative effectiveness of UK government investment in sport as a public health intervention. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 8(4), 559–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wicker, P., & Frick, B. (2015). The relationship between intensity and duration of physical activity and subjective well-being. European Journal of Public Health, 25, 868–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Willey, J. Z., Moon, Y. P., Sherzai, A., Cheung, Y. K., Sacco, R. L., & Elkind, M. S. V. (2015). Leisure-time physical activity and mortality in a multiethnic prospective cohort study: The northern Manhattan study. Annals of Epidemiology, 25, 475–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Williams, R. (2006). Generalized ordered logit/partial proportional odds models for ordinal dependent variables. The Stata Journal, 6(1), 55–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Williams, P. T. (2010). Reductions in incident coronary heart disease risk above guideline physical activity levels in men. Atherosclerosis, 209, 524–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wollesen, B., & Voelcker-Rehage, C. (2013). Training effects on motor-cognitive dual-task performance in older adults. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 11, 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Sport ScienceRuhr University BochumBochumGermany

Personalised recommendations