Advertisement

Journal of Population Ageing

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 359–378 | Cite as

Retirement and Depression in Mexican Older Adults: Effect Modifiers in a Cohort Based on the Study on AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2002–2010

  • Laura Juliana Bonilla-Tinoco
  • Julián Alfredo Fernández-NiñoEmail author
  • Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza
  • Martin Romero-Martínez
  • Ana Luisa Sosa
Article

Abstract

World population is experiencing a demographic transition, which introduces changes in the workforce structure, such as increasing retirement. At the same time, retirement produces several life-style modifications that significantly influence well-being and can lead to depression. Thereby, this study aimed to estimate the association between retirement and depression incidence in Mexican older adults from a population-based cohort and to evaluate its potential effect modifiers. The cohort was assembled using SAGE-Mexico waves 0 and 1 (baseline and follow-up, respectively), and included individuals who at wave 0 were 53+ years and not depressed, and those who had a follow-up. Retirement was assessed in wave 0 by creating three categories: working; retired; and can’t retire; covariates were also ascertained in wave 0. Incidence of depression was measured in wave 1 by means of self-report of a medical diagnosis of depression and of the use of an algorithm based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate risk ratios (RR) adjusted for all the covariates; additionally, interaction terms were constructed to explore a potential effect modification given by marital status, income quintile, health insurance tenure and multimorbidity. The analytic sample consisted of 820 participants; the 8-year depression incidence was 12.20%; and being retired increased the risk of depression in those older adults who did not have a permanent partner (RR: 4.52; CI 95% 1.30–15.76). The results obtained in this study indicate that the association between retirement and depression in Mexican older adults depends on the context surrounding the retirement transition.

Keywords

Retirement Depression Incidence Aged Cohort studies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper uses data from the WHO World Health Surveys / Multi-Country Survey Study (as appropriate) and from WHO’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SAGE is supported by the US National Institute on Aging through Interagency Agreements OGHA 04034785; YA1323-08-CN-0020; Y1-AG-1005-0) and through research grants R01-AG034479 and R21-AG034263.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

Formal consent is not required, since this is a retrospective research. However, it is important to note that the present investigation was approved by the ethical committee of the Universidad Industrial de Santander and obtained the permission of the World Health Organization Multi-Country Studies Data Archive to use waves 0 and 1 databases. This data are public and can be used previous access request, although it does not have any information that allows individual identification of participants.

Informed Consent

All individuals included in this study gave their informed consent to participate in SAGE waves.

References

  1. Aguilar García, J. (2002). Las políticas de empleo y la población informal en México durante la modernización económica.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Trastornos depresivos. In Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales (DSM-5) (Editorial., pp. 155–188).Google Scholar
  3. Arokiasamy, P., Uttamacharya, U., Jain, K., Biritwum, R. B., Yawson, A. E., Wu, F., et al. (2015). The impact of multimorbidity on adult physical and mental health in low- and middle-income countries: What does the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) reveal? BMC Medicine, 13(1), 178.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0402-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asenova, A. (2014). The effect of retirement on mental health and social inclusion of the elderly. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=reference&D=emed10&NEWS=N&AN=70915453.
  5. Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., Nuevo, R., Verdes, E., Naidoo, N., & Chatterji, S. (2010). From depressive symptoms to depressive disorders: The relevance of thresholds. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(5), 365–371.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.109.071191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Fink, G. (2010). Implications of population ageing for economic growth. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 26(4), 583–612.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grq038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowlby, G. (2007). Defining retirement. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 8(2), 15–19 http://goo.gl/SxJ1tB.Google Scholar
  8. Butterworth, P., Gill, S. C., Rodgers, B., Anstey, K. J., Villamil, E., & Melzer, D. (2006). Retirement and mental health: Analysis of the Australian national survey of mental health and well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 62(5), 1179–1191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.07.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buxton, J. W., Singleton, N., & Melzer, D. (2005). The mental health of early retirees. National interview survey in Britain. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(2), 99–105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0866-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dave, D., Rashad, I., & Spasojevic, J. (2008). The effects of retirement on physical and mental health outcomes. Southern Economic Journal, 75(2), 497–523.Google Scholar
  11. Denton, F. T., & Spencer, B. G. (2009). What is retirement? A review and assessment of alternative concepts and measures. Canadian Journal on Aging, 28(1), 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fernández-Niño, J. A., & Bustos-Vázquez, E. (2016). Multimorbilidad: bases conceptuales, modelos epidemiológicos y retos de su medición. Biomédica, 36(2), 188–203.  https://doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v36i2.2710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fiske, A., Wetherell, J., & Gatz, M. (2009). Depression in older adults. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 363–389.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153621.Depression.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garay, S., Redondo, N., & Montes de Oca, V. (2012). Cambios en los hogares con población envejecida en Argentina y México: algunas aproximaciones a las transformaciones familiares derivadas de la transición demográfica. In Asociación Latinoamericana de Población (Ed.), El envejecimiento en América Latina: evidencia empírica y cuestiones metodológicas (1a., pp. 21–42). Río de Janeiro: Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas.Google Scholar
  15. George, L. K. (1993). Sociological perspectives on life transitions. Annu. Rev. Social, 19, 353–373.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.19.080193.002033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres. (2007). El impacto de los estereotipos y los roles de género en México. http://cedoc.inmujeres.gob.mx/documentos_download/100893.pdf.
  17. Kim, J. E., & Moen, P. (2001a). Is retirement good or bad for subjective well-being? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(3), 83–86.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim, J. E., & Moen, P. (2001b). Moving into retirement: Preparation and transitions in late midlife. In Handbook of midlife development (pp. 487–527). New York: Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc..Google Scholar
  19. Kim, J. E., & Moen, P. (2002). Retirement transitions, gender, and psychological well-being: A life-course. Ecological Modelling, 57(3), 212–222.Google Scholar
  20. Kowal, P., Chatterji, S., Naidoo, N., Biritwum, R., Fan, W., Ridaura, R. L., et al. (2012). Data resource profile: The World Health Organization study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). International Journal of Epidemiology, 41(6), 1639–1649.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dys210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lazarevich, I., & Mora-carrasco, F. (2008). Depresión y género : Factores psicosociales de riesgo. Segunda época, 4, 10–377.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee, J., & Smith, J. P. (2009). Work, retirement, and depression. Journal of Population Ageing, 2(1–2), 57–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-010-9018-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee, R., Mason, A., & Cotlear, D. (2010). Some economic consequences of global aging: A discussion note for the World Bank. Washington, DC. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/HEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/Resources/281627-1095698140167/SomeEconomicConsequencesOfGlobalAging.pdf.
  24. Mandal, B., & Roe, B. (2008). Job loss, retirement and the mental health of older Americans. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 11(4), 167–176.Google Scholar
  25. Mein, G., Martikainen, P., Hemingway, H., Stansfeld, S., & Marmot, M. (2003). Is retirement good or bad for mental and physical health functioning? Whitehall II longitudinal study of civil servants. American Journal of Public Health, 57, 46–49.Google Scholar
  26. Moen, P. (1996). A life course perspective on retirement, gender, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(2), 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mojon-Azzi, S., Sousa-Poza, A., & Widmer, R. (2007). The effect of retirement on health: A panel analysis using data from the Swiss household panel. Swiss Medical Weekly, 137, 581–585.  https://doi.org/10.2007/41/smw-11841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mosca, I., & Barrett, A. (2016). The impact of voluntary and involuntary retirement on mental health: Evidence from older Irish adults. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 19(1), 33–44.Google Scholar
  29. Naidoo, N. (2011). Mexico - study on global Ageing and adult Health-2009/10, wave 1. MEX-WHO-SAGE-2011-v01. http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog/67. Accessed 9 Jan 2017.
  30. OCDE. (2016). El sistema público de pensiones. In Estudio de la OCDE sobre los sistemas de pensiones: México (Comisión N., pp. 39–66). OCDE. doi: https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264250017-es.
  31. Olesen, K., Rod, N. H., Madsen, I. E. H., Bonde, J. P., & Rugulies, R. (2015). Does retirement reduce the risk of mental disorders? A national registry-linkage study of treatment for mental disorders before and after retirement of 245,082 Danish residents. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 72, 366–372.  https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2014-102228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). (2015). La salud en la vejez. In Informe mundial sobre el envejecimiento y la salud (pp. 45–92). http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/186466/1/9789240694873_spa.pdf.
  33. Osborne, J. W. (2012). Psychological effects of the transition to retirement. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 46(1), 45–58.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13642537.2012.734472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 264–282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pinquart, M., & Schindler, I. (2007). Changes of life satisfaction in the transition to retirement: A latent-class approach. Psychology and Aging, 22(3), 442–455.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400902988275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rhee, M.-K., Mor Barak, M. E., & Gallo, W. T. (2016). Mechanisms of the effect of involuntary retirement on older adults’ self-rated health and mental health. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 59(1), 35–55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2015.1128504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Scherer, P. (2002). Age of withdrawal from the labour force in OECD countries. OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Ocassional Papers, 49, 60.  https://doi.org/10.1787/327074367476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shiba, K., Kondo, N., Kondo, K., & Kawachi, I. (2017). Retirement and mental health: Dose social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4427-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. United Nations Population Fund. (2012). Setting the scene. In Ageing in the Twenty-First Century: A Celebration and A Challenge (pp. 19–34). New York. 978-0-89714-981-5.Google Scholar
  40. Vega E, González J, Llibre J O. M. (2009). Trastornos Mentales en los Adultos Mayores. In A.-G. S. Rodríguez Jorge, Kohn Robert (Ed.), Epidemiología de los trastornos mentales en América Latina y el Caribe (Organizaci., pp. 243–255).Google Scholar
  41. Wang, M., & Shi, J. (2014). Psychological research on retirement. Annual Review of Psychology, 65(1), 1.1–1.25.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Westerlund, H., Vahtera, J., Ferrie, J. E., Singh-Manoux, A., Pentti, J., Melchior, M., et al. (2010). Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 341, c6149.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c6149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wittchen, H.-U. U. (1994). Reliability and validity studies of the WHO--composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI): A critical review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 28(1), 57–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(94)90036-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders - Diagnostic Criteria for Research. World Health Organization (Vol. 10). Geneva. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6505(2000)9:5<201::AID-EVAN2>3.3.CO;2-P CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. World Health Organization. (2003). Mexico - World Health Survey 2003, Wave 0. MEX_2003_WHS_v01_M. http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog/82/related_materials. Accessed 9 January 2017.
  46. World Health Organization. (2005). World Health Survey - Report of Mexico. http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog/82/related_materials.
  47. World Health Organization. (2011). Technical appendix C. In World Report on Disability (pp. 287–294).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Juliana Bonilla-Tinoco
    • 1
  • Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño
    • 2
    Email author
  • Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza
    • 3
  • Martin Romero-Martínez
    • 3
  • Ana Luisa Sosa
    • 4
  1. 1.Public Health DepartmentUniversidad Industrial de SantanderBucaramangaColombia
  2. 2.Public Health DepartmentUniversidad del NorteBarranquillaColombia
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Salud PúblicaCuernavacaMexico
  4. 4.Laboratorio de DemenciasInstituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”Ciudad de MéxicoMexico

Personalised recommendations