Journal of Population Ageing

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 359–378 | Cite as

Retirement and Depression in Mexican Older Adults: Effect Modifiers in a Cohort Based on the Study on AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE), 2002–2010

  • Laura Juliana Bonilla-Tinoco
  • Julián Alfredo Fernández-NiñoEmail author
  • Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza
  • Martin Romero-Martínez
  • Ana Luisa Sosa


World population is experiencing a demographic transition, which introduces changes in the workforce structure, such as increasing retirement. At the same time, retirement produces several life-style modifications that significantly influence well-being and can lead to depression. Thereby, this study aimed to estimate the association between retirement and depression incidence in Mexican older adults from a population-based cohort and to evaluate its potential effect modifiers. The cohort was assembled using SAGE-Mexico waves 0 and 1 (baseline and follow-up, respectively), and included individuals who at wave 0 were 53+ years and not depressed, and those who had a follow-up. Retirement was assessed in wave 0 by creating three categories: working; retired; and can’t retire; covariates were also ascertained in wave 0. Incidence of depression was measured in wave 1 by means of self-report of a medical diagnosis of depression and of the use of an algorithm based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate risk ratios (RR) adjusted for all the covariates; additionally, interaction terms were constructed to explore a potential effect modification given by marital status, income quintile, health insurance tenure and multimorbidity. The analytic sample consisted of 820 participants; the 8-year depression incidence was 12.20%; and being retired increased the risk of depression in those older adults who did not have a permanent partner (RR: 4.52; CI 95% 1.30–15.76). The results obtained in this study indicate that the association between retirement and depression in Mexican older adults depends on the context surrounding the retirement transition.


Retirement Depression Incidence Aged Cohort studies 



This paper uses data from the WHO World Health Surveys / Multi-Country Survey Study (as appropriate) and from WHO’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SAGE is supported by the US National Institute on Aging through Interagency Agreements OGHA 04034785; YA1323-08-CN-0020; Y1-AG-1005-0) and through research grants R01-AG034479 and R21-AG034263.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

Formal consent is not required, since this is a retrospective research. However, it is important to note that the present investigation was approved by the ethical committee of the Universidad Industrial de Santander and obtained the permission of the World Health Organization Multi-Country Studies Data Archive to use waves 0 and 1 databases. This data are public and can be used previous access request, although it does not have any information that allows individual identification of participants.

Informed Consent

All individuals included in this study gave their informed consent to participate in SAGE waves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Juliana Bonilla-Tinoco
    • 1
  • Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño
    • 2
    Email author
  • Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza
    • 3
  • Martin Romero-Martínez
    • 3
  • Ana Luisa Sosa
    • 4
  1. 1.Public Health DepartmentUniversidad Industrial de SantanderBucaramangaColombia
  2. 2.Public Health DepartmentUniversidad del NorteBarranquillaColombia
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Salud PúblicaCuernavacaMexico
  4. 4.Laboratorio de DemenciasInstituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”Ciudad de MéxicoMexico

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