Explaining Spatial Distribution of the Middle Class: A Multiple Indicator Approach with Multiple Explanatory Dimensions
- 56 Downloads
This study attempts to investigate the pattern of the middle class in the Seoul Metropolitan Region and to explain why such a pattern occurs from spatial perspectives. For this purpose, the middle class are first defined based on four indicators: income, education, occupation and housing. Then, the spatial concentration of the middle class are explored by each indicator for 2010. The explanation of the pattern is pursued based on four dimensions often considered as critical factors in residential location decisions of the middle class: neighborhood, employment, consumption and educational environment. The findings suggest that the spatial distribution of the middle class generally shows a combination of concentric and sector models as we go farther from Seoul. The results of the global and the local regression analyses suggest that employment (producer service jobs) and educational environment (private after-school educational institutes) are important dimensions in explaining the residential location of the middle class in the Seoul Metropolitan Region.
KeywordsMiddle class Spatial distribution Employment Educational environment Geographically weighted regression (GWR) Seoul
This work was supported by the Institute for Korean Regional Studies, Seoul National University. The authors thank Cheonghun Lee, a former graduate student in the Department of Geography, SNU, for collecting and compiling the database.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
- Butler, T., & Robson, G. (2003). London calling: The middle classes and the remaking of inner London. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
- Choo, S.-H., & Park, S.-K. (2013). Analyzing spatial distribution and trip generation factors by household structure in Seoul. Journal of Transport Research, 20(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
- Han, S.-J. (1987). Toward a conceptualization of the Korean ‘Jung-san (middle)’ stratum with and emphasis on its size and ideological characters. Korean Journal of Sociology, 21(1), 121–148.Google Scholar
- Hong, D.-S. (2005). The middle classes in Korea. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.Google Scholar
- Kim, K. (2016). A study on spatial equity of opportunities to use public childcare services focusing on national/public childcare centers in Seoul. Seoul Studies, 17(1), 45–64.Google Scholar
- Korean Sociological Association. (2008). Middle class at a crossroads. Goyang: Ingansarang.Google Scholar
- Lee, Y. (2006). Social construction and politics of identity of the Gangnam region, Seoul: An inquiry of external categorization of regional identity through mass media. Journal of the Korean Urban Geographical Society, 9(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
- Nakata, T. (2014). GWR4 user manual. Kyoto: GWR 4 development team.Google Scholar
- Park, B.-G. & Jang, J. (2016) Gangnam-ization and Korean urban ideology. Journal of the Korean Association of Regional Geographers, 22(2), 287–306.Google Scholar
- Savage, M., Barlow, J., & Longhurst, B. (2005). Globalization and belonging. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Yee, J. (2014). Emergence of the low incomer’s society with vanishing middle class. In W.-T. Kang, B. Y. Kim, S.-H. Ahn, J. Yee, & I. Choi (Eds.), Are you middle class? (pp. 109–163). Paju: Book21.Google Scholar