Design and optimization of grid-tied and off-grid solar PV systems for super-efficient electrical appliances
- 9 Downloads
Modeling, simulation, and optimization methods are used in the present study to design grid-tied and off-grid solar PV systems for super-efficient electrical appliances for residential buildings. The principal objective of this study is to design a renewable energy system to serve the electric load of super-efficient appliances with high penetration of renewable resources and low greenhouse gas emissions and cost of energy. Hourly calculations using optimization method are used to study the daily and yearly performance and the cost of the renewable energy systems. A comparison between the performance of the grid-tied and off-grid solar PV systems using conventional and super-efficient appliances in Dubai is presented. The comparison includes the total power production from the solar PV system, the power purchased from the grid, the extra power sold to the utility grid, the power used to meet the electrical load of the appliances, the excess power, the renewable fraction, the greenhouse gas emissions, and the levelized cost of energy. The results of the simulation show that the integration of super-efficient appliances powered with the grid-tied solar power system is a good option to control the energy consumption of the residential buildings and to reduce the cost of electricity and greenhouse gas emissions: low building energy consumption (reduction by half of the electrical power consumption: from 62.91 to 30.78 kWh/day using super-efficient appliances); all the electrical power demand for the building is met without shortage; the power systems produce low excess power (0.29–1.82%) compared to the off-grid power system; all the extra power from the solar PV is sold back to the grid to reduce the cost of energy, high renewable fraction (68% of the total energy served to the load is produced from solar PV), low-cost of electricity (12% reduction of the cost of energy compared to the utility grid), and low greenhouse gas emissions (45–51% reductions of the CO2, NOX, and SO2 emissions compared to the conventional electrical appliances).
KeywordsSuper-efficient appliances Grid-tied solar PV Off-grid solar PV Renewable energy Energy efficiency
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the University of Sharjah, Sustainable Energy Development Research Group Operational Grant, Grant Ref. V.C.R.G./R. 1329/2017.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abhyankar N., Shah N., Letschert V., and Phadke A. (2017) Assessing the cost-effective energy saving potential from top-10 appliances in India. 9th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting (EEDAL), University of California, Irvine, September 13-15.Google Scholar
- Alkhateeb E., Abu Hijleh B., Rengasamy E. and Muhammed S. Proceedings of SBE16 Dubai, 17–19 January, 2016, Dubai-UAE.Google Scholar
- Amasyali, K., & El-Gohary, M. N. (2018). A review of data-driven building energy consumption prediction studies, renewable and sustainable energy reviews, volume 81. Part, 1, 1192–1205.Google Scholar
- Cox, S., Hotchkiss E., Bilello D., Watson A., Holm A., and Leisch J. (2017). “Bridging climate change resilience and mitigation in the electricity sector through renewable energy and energy efficiency: emerging climate change and development topics for energy sector transformation.” Technical report. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy18osti/67040.pdf. Accessed Nov 2017.
- Energy Access Outlook 2017, (2017). From poverty to prosperity, World Energy Outlook special report, 1st edition. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Energy Agency, IEA.Google Scholar
- Ghenai, C., & Janajreh, I. (2013). Comparison of resource intensities and operational parameters of renewable, fossil fuel, and nuclear power systems. International Journal of Thermal and Environmental Engineering, 5(2), 95–104.Google Scholar
- Ghenai, C., Salameh, T., and Merabet, A. (2018a). Technico-economic analysis of off grid solar PV/fuel cell energy system for residential community in desert region. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.05.110.
- Government of Dubai, Dubai Electricity and Water Authority, (2017). Annual Statistics, https://www.dewa.gov.ae/en/about-dewa/about-us/dewa-publications/annual-statistics. Accessed 5 Feb 2018.
- Per-Ola Karlsson, Christopher Decker, and Jad Moussalli, J. (2015) Energy efficiency in the UAE: aiming for sustainability, Strategy & Formerly Booz & Company, Technical Report, https://www.strategyand.pwc.com/reports/energy-efficiency-in-uae. Accessed 4 June 2015.
- Narayan, N., Qin, Z., Popovic-Gerber, J., Diehl, J.-C., Bauer, P., & Zeman, M. (2018). Stochastic load profile construction for the multi-tier framework for household electricity access using off-grid DC appliances. Energy Efficiency, 1–19.Google Scholar
- Phadke, A. A., Jacobson, A., Park, W. Y., Lee, G. R., Alstone, P., and Khare, A. (2015). Powering a home with just 25 watts of solar PV: super-efficient appliances can enable expanded off-grid energy service using small solar power systems. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report Number: LBNL-175726.Google Scholar
- Singh, V. K., Henriques C. O., Martins A. G. (2018b). Assessment of energy-efficient appliances: a review of the technologies and policies in India's residential sector. WIREs Energy and Environment. https://doi.org/10.1002/wene.330.