Design and optimization of grid-tied and off-grid solar PV systems for super-efficient electrical appliances

  • Chaouki Ghenai
  • Maamar Bettayeb
Original Article


Modeling, simulation, and optimization methods are used in the present study to design grid-tied and off-grid solar PV systems for super-efficient electrical appliances for residential buildings. The principal objective of this study is to design a renewable energy system to serve the electric load of super-efficient appliances with high penetration of renewable resources and low greenhouse gas emissions and cost of energy. Hourly calculations using optimization method are used to study the daily and yearly performance and the cost of the renewable energy systems. A comparison between the performance of the grid-tied and off-grid solar PV systems using conventional and super-efficient appliances in Dubai is presented. The comparison includes the total power production from the solar PV system, the power purchased from the grid, the extra power sold to the utility grid, the power used to meet the electrical load of the appliances, the excess power, the renewable fraction, the greenhouse gas emissions, and the levelized cost of energy. The results of the simulation show that the integration of super-efficient appliances powered with the grid-tied solar power system is a good option to control the energy consumption of the residential buildings and to reduce the cost of electricity and greenhouse gas emissions: low building energy consumption (reduction by half of the electrical power consumption: from 62.91 to 30.78 kWh/day using super-efficient appliances); all the electrical power demand for the building is met without shortage; the power systems produce low excess power (0.29–1.82%) compared to the off-grid power system; all the extra power from the solar PV is sold back to the grid to reduce the cost of energy, high renewable fraction (68% of the total energy served to the load is produced from solar PV), low-cost of electricity (12% reduction of the cost of energy compared to the utility grid), and low greenhouse gas emissions (45–51% reductions of the CO2, NOX, and SO2 emissions compared to the conventional electrical appliances).


Super-efficient appliances Grid-tied solar PV Off-grid solar PV Renewable energy Energy efficiency 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the University of Sharjah, Sustainable Energy Development Research Group Operational Grant, Grant Ref. V.C.R.G./R. 1329/2017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering Department, College of EngineeringUniversity of SharjahSharjahUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of SharjahSharjahUnited Arab Emirates
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence in Intelligent Engineering systems (CEIES)King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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