Analysis of solar and battery requirements for hybrid DC/AC powered households in the USA

  • Swachala VeerapaneniEmail author
  • Karthik Palaniappan
  • Robert M. Cuzner
Original Article


US households consume more electricity compared to other developed countries due to the fact that majority of the US household loads are inefficient. As a result, deployment of residential solar PV cost is increased given the high-power consumption and becomes less viable. Utilities are also increasingly applying surcharges to customers with solar PV installations because of direct impacts to the grid, making purely solar PV installations unattractive. This is especially in the case for low-income households, where they are seemingly shut out from participating in the energy economy given the penalties and the costs. This research primary focus is to make Installed Cost Benchmarks for Residential Solar Photovoltaic with Energy Storage costs more affordable for an average-income home owner in the USA; one approach is to reduce power consumption within the household by adapting DC appliances. So, a compelling means towards reducing household load is to convert a portion of household electrical loads such as LED lighting, air conditioning, ceiling fans, and electronic loads to DC. Secondly, optimizing size of solar panels and battery and without the need for energy export, it compensates for surcharges and recover return on solar investment. Data provided in this paper gives an insight into adapting suitable hybrid DC/AC architecture for three different types of households associated with five different geographical regions based of different climactic conditions spread across the USA. The systems are distinguished by the degree to which redundant AC to DC conversion stages are reduced, which will be inversely proportional to cost. This paper shows that deployment of DC distribution within the house will result in lower average cost and better returns on solar and battery investment than revealed by the NREL study. Also, outlines the costs and savings of different architecture that can be adaptable based on the type of the house, location, savings, and affordability. Only this paper shows the benefits occur due to the reduced number of solar panels and battery storage required when compared to conventional AC powered households. The end goal of this work is to increase the adoptability of solar PV across a more diverse population with a particular focus on low-income households.


Hybrid DC/AC Solar Battery DC architectures 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

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