Energy Efficiency

, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp 2137–2156 | Cite as

Interaction effects of energy efficiency policies: a review

  • Catharina WieseEmail author
  • Anders Larsen
  • Lise-Lotte Pade
Review Article


Increasing energy efficiency and savings will play a key role in the achievement of the climate and energy targets in the European Union (EU). To meet the EU’s objectives for greenhouse gas emission reductions, renewable energy use and energy efficiency improvements, its member states have implemented and will design and implement various energy policies. This paper reviews a range of scientific articles on the topic of policy instruments for energy efficiency and savings and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of different measures. The review demonstrates the variety of possible instruments and points to the complex policy environment, in which not a single instrument can meet the respective energy efficiency targets, but which requires a combination of multiple instruments. Therefore, the paper in particular focuses on assessing potential interactions between combinations of energy efficiency policies, i.e. the extent to which the different instruments counteract or support one another. So far, the literature on energy efficiency policy has paid only limited attention to the effect of interacting policies. This paper reviews and analyses interaction effects thus far identified with respect to factors that determine the interaction. Drawing on this review, we identify cases for interaction effects between energy efficiency policies to assess their potential existence systematically and to show future research needs.


Energy efficiency Energy savings Policy instruments Interaction effects Household energy consumption Industry energy consumption 



The research has been financed by the Innovation Fund Denmark under the research project SAVE-E, grant no. 4106-00009B.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication [June 2018]

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management Engineering, Systems Analysis DivisionTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Social Sciences and BusinessRoskilde UniversityRoskildeDenmark

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