Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effect of transverse reinforcement corrosion on compressive strength reduction of stirrup-confined concrete: an experimental study

  • 28 Accesses


Stirrups of reinforced concrete members are very prone to corrosion compared with longitudinal reinforcements, resulting from their small concrete covers, which lead to concrete cracking and spalling. Due to the adverse effects of corrosion, this article aims to investigate the amount of reduction in the capacity of reinforced concrete specimens in different corrosion degrees. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is carried out on 22 reinforced and non-reinforced rectangular prism specimens, of which 12 reinforced specimens are corroded. The test variables contain the corrosion percentage, and the stirrup diameter and spacing. Eventually, all specimens are tested for compressive strength for 90 days. The experimental results show that the reduction of compressive strength depends on the corrosion percentage and stirrup diameter. According to this conclusion, a new formulation is proposed to express the relationship between compressive strength reduction and its effects.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13


A s :

cross-section of the stirrup leg

C w :

corrosion level

d c :

width of concrete core perpendicular to the confinement stress

f c0 :

compressive strength of non-confined concrete

f cc :

compressive strength of the confined concrete

f lx :

confinement stresses in the x direction

f ly :

confinement stresses in the y direction

f yt :

failure stress of stirrup

k e :

confinement effectiveness coefficient

n l :

number of longitudinal reinforcements at the edge of stirrup

s :

stirrup spacing

w i :

ith clear transverse spacing between adjacent longitudinal bars

λ :

parameter of confinement strength reduction

ρ cc :

ratio of the area of the longitudinal steel to the area of section core


  1. 1

    Anoop M B and Rao K B 2016 Performance evaluation of corrosion-affected reinforced concrete bridge girders using Markov chains with fuzzy states. Sādhanā 41(8): 887–899

  2. 2

    Palsson R and Mirza M S 2002 Mechanical response of corroded steel reinforcement of abandoned concrete bridge. Struct. J. 99(2): 157–162

  3. 3

    Ghanooni-Bagha M, Shayanfar M, Shirzadi-Javid A and Ziaadiny H 2016 Corrosion-induced reduction in compressive strength of self-compacting concretes containing mineral admixtures. Construct. Build. Mater. 113: 221–228

  4. 4

    Li F, Yuan Y and Li C Q 2011 Corrosion propagation of prestressing steel strands in concrete subject to chloride attack. Construct. Build. Mater. 25(10): 3878–3885

  5. 5

    Amleh L and Mirza S 1999 Corrosion influence on the bond between steel and concrete. Struct. J. 96(3): 415–423

  6. 6

    Vu N S, Yu B and Li B 2017 Stress–strain model for confined concrete with corroded transverse reinforcement. Eng. Struct. 151: 472–487

  7. 7

    Val D V 2007 Deterioration of strength of RC beams due to corrosion and its influence on beam reliability. J. Struct. Eng. 133(9): 1297–1306

  8. 8

    Castel A, François R and Arliguie G 2000 Mechanical behavior of corroded reinforced concrete beams—part 1: an experimental study of corroded beams. Mater. Struct. 33(9): 539–544

  9. 9

    Dai K S and Yuan Y S 2005 Experimental study on seismic performance of corroded exterior joints in RC frame. J. China Univ. Mining Technol. 1(011)

  10. 10

    Wang X H and Liang F Y 2008 Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion. Nuclear Eng. Design 238(12): 3194–3202

  11. 11

    Xia J, Jin W L and Li L Y 2011 Shear performance of reinforced concrete beams with corroded stirrups in a chloride environment. Corros. Sci. 53(5):1794–1805

  12. 12

    Ou Y C and Chen H H 2014 Cyclic behavior of reinforced concrete beams with corroded transverse steel reinforcement. J. Struct. Eng. 140(9): 04014050

  13. 13

    Shayanfar M A, Barkhordari M A and Ghanooni-Bagha M 2016 Effect of longitudinal rebar corrosion on the compressive strength reduction of concrete in the reinforced concrete structure. Adv. Struct. Eng. 19(6): 897–907

  14. 14

    Husem M and Pul S 2007 Investigation of stress–strain models for confined high strength concrete. Sadhana 32(pt 3): 243–252

  15. 15

    Park J H, Jo B W, Yoon S J and Park S K 2011 Experimental investigation on the structural behavior of concrete filled FRP tubes with/without steel rebar. KSCE J. Civil Eng. 15(2): 337–345

  16. 16

    Ozbakkaloglu T 2012 Axial compressive behavior of square and rectangular high-strength concrete-filled FRP tubes. J. Compos. Construct. 17(1): 151–161

  17. 17

    Paultre P and Légeron F 2008 Confinement reinforcement design for reinforced concrete columns. J. Struct. Eng. 134(5): 738–749

  18. 18

    Li H, Teng J, Li Z, Wang Y and Zou D 2016 Experimental study of damage evolution in cuboid stirrup-confined concrete. Mater. Struct. 49(7): 2857–2870

  19. 19

    Park R and Paulay T 1975 Reinforced concrete structures. Wiley, Hoboken

  20. 20

    Sheikh S A and Uzumeri S 1982 Analytical model for concrete confinement in tied columns. J. Struct. Div. 108(12): 27032722

  21. 21

    Razvi S and Saatcioglu M 1999 Confinement model for high-strength concrete. J. Struct. Eng. 125(3): 281–289

  22. 22

    Mander J B, Priestley M J and Park R 1988 Theoretical stress–strain model for confined concrete. J. Struct. Eng. 114(8): 1804–1826

  23. 23

    Shayanfar M A, Barkhordari M A and Ghanooni-Bagha M 2015 Probability calculation of rebars corrosion in reinforced concrete using CSS algorithms. J. Central South Univ. 22(8): 3141–3150

  24. 24

    Ghanooni-Bagha M, Shayanfar M A and Farnia M H 2018 Cracking effects on chloride diffusion and corrosion initiation in RC structures via finite element simulation. Sci. Iran. https://doi.org/10.24200/sci.2018.50496.1725

  25. 25

    Zhao Y X and Jin W L 2006 Modeling the amount of steel corrosion at the cracking of concrete cover. Adv. Struct. Eng. 9(5): 687–696

  26. 26

    Andrade C, Alonso C and Molina F 1993 Cover cracking as a function of bar corrosion: part I—experimental test. Mater. Struct. 26(8): 453–464

  27. 27

    Alonso C, Andrade C, Rodriguez J and Diez J M 1998 Factors controlling cracking of concrete affected by reinforcement corrosion. Mater. Struct. 31(7): 435–441

  28. 28

    Hu S, Chen Q and Gong N 2018 Effect of acid corrosion on crack propagation of concrete beams. Sādhanā 43(2): 23

  29. 29

    Tastani S, Pantazopoulou S, Zdoumba D, Plakantaras V and Akritidis E 2006 Limitations of FRP jacketing in confining old-type reinforced concrete members in axial compression. J. Compos. Construct. 10(1): 13–25

  30. 30

    Tastani S and Pantazopoulou S 2004 Experimental evaluation of FRP jackets in upgrading RC corroded columns with substandard detailing. Eng. Struct. 26(6): 817–829

  31. 31

    ACI-318-14 2014 Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI

  32. 32

    ASTM-G102-89 2015 Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA

  33. 33

    Das S C, Pouya H S and Ganjian E 2015 Zinc-rich paint as anode for cathodic protection of steel in concrete. J. Mater. Civil Eng. 27(11): 04015013

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Jamal Ahmadi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Goharrokhi, A., Ahmadi, J., Shayanfar, M.A. et al. Effect of transverse reinforcement corrosion on compressive strength reduction of stirrup-confined concrete: an experimental study. Sādhanā 45, 49 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12046-020-1280-0

Download citation


  • Concrete
  • stirrup
  • confinement
  • corrosion
  • compressive strength