Advertisement

Sādhanā

, 44:209 | Cite as

Recovery of basic valuable metals and alloys from E-waste using microwave heating followed by leaching and cementation process

  • Rajendra Prasad MahapatraEmail author
  • Satya Sai Srikant
  • Raghupatruni Bhima Rao
  • Bijayananda Mohanty
Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

The whole world understands about the crisis of harmful electronic waste as it is increasing the usage and its disposal. The Government of India asked researchers to come out with innovative alternative solutions, apart from existing conventional methods for safe reuse, recycling and proper disposal particularly for electronic solid waste system. The solution is found which consists of microwave heat treatment followed by acid leaching. The e-waste was first crushed and then the sample was melted in microwave heat treatment to recover the valuable metal in the form of metallic mixture. This mixture was further subjected to acid leaching process in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to form leached liquor. The analysis with X-ray diffraction, image mapping and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the leached liquor sample mainly contain iron, aluminum and copper, mostly in the form of alloys. The results with field-emission scanning electron microscope analysis, also shows that approximately ninety percent leaching efficiency is observed for nickel, cobalt and copper with hydrochloric acid as solvent, whereas iron and aluminum produced less than forty percent. Further, these results are also compared with the existing methods based on the response surface method through thermal plasma process.

Keywords

E-waste printed circuit board microwave heating leaching cementation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Director and Scientists/Researchers of CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar for extending the facilities to carry out the work and guiding us with their Mineral and Material processing experience. This research work did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

References

  1. 1.
    Chauhan G, Prashant R J, Pant K K and Nigam K D P 2018 Novel technologies and conventional processes for recovery of metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment: challenges and opportunities—a review. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 6: 1288–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Isildar A, Eldon R R, Eric D V H and Piet N L L 2018 Electronic waste as a secondary source of critical metals: management and recovery technologies. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 135: 296–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xue M, Kendall A, Xu Z and Schoenung J M 2015 Waste management of printed wiring boards: a life cycle assessment of the metals recycling chain from liberation through refining. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49: 940–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khanna R, Cayumil R, Mukherjee P S and Sahajwalla V 2014 A novel recycling approach for transforming waste printed circuit boards into a material resource. Procedia Environ. Sci. 21: 42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martha C, Araceli G, Juan A C and Consuelo M C 2009 Characterization of fly ash from a hazardous waste incinerator in Medellin, Colombia. J. Hazard. Mater. 168: 1223–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saidan M, Brown B and Valix M 2012 Leaching of electronic waste using biometabolised acids. Chin. J. Chem. Eng. 20: 530–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Das A, Vidyadhar A and Mehrotra S P 2009 A novel flowsheet for the recovery of metal values from waste printed circuit boards. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 53: 464–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cui J and Zhang L 2008 Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: a review. J. Hazard. Mater. 158: 228–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swarnil D and Jana T 2014 E-waste recycling technology—patents filed in India—an analysis. J. Intellect. Prop. Rights 19: 315–324Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schlummer M, Gruber L, Maurer A, Wolz G and Van E R 2007 Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment and implications for waste management. Chemosphere 67: 1866–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chitsan L, Yi-Ming K and Kuo-Lin H 2012 Metal behavior during vitrification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 12: 1379–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rath S S, Nayak P, Mukherjee P S, Chaudhury G R and Mishra B K 2012 Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching—a response surface modeling approach. Waste Manag. 32: 575–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schlummer M, Maurer A, Leitner T and Spruzina W 2006 Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment. Waste Manag. Res. 24: 573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xue M and Xu Z 2016 Application of life cycle assessment on electronic waste management: a review. Environ. Manag. 59: 693–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdul K, Rhamdhani M A, Brooks G and Syed M 2014 Metal extraction process for electronic waste and existing industrial routes: a review and Australian perspective. Resources 3: 152–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Congren Y, Li J, Tan Q and Dong Q 2017 Green process of metal recycling: co-processing waste printed circuit boards and spent tin stripping solution. Am. Chem. Soc. 5: 3524–3534Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu X, Tan Q, Li Y, Xu Z and Chen M 2017 Copper recovery from waste printed circuit boards concentrated metal scraps by electrolysis. Environ. Sci. Eng. 11: 1–5Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Valix M 2017 Production, isolation and purification of industrial products. In: Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, pp. 407–409Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Enrique E R, Maria A M, Claudio A O N, Denise C R E, Renato O, Guilherme O and Marcio R C 2017 Bioleaching of electronic waste using bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera). J. Hazard. Mater. 329: 120–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hong Y and Valix M 2014 Bioleaching of electronic waste using acidophilic sulfur oxidising bacteria. J. Clean. Prod. 65: 465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Weijin W, Xiaocui L, Zhu M, Xu Z and Wensong T 2018 Bioleaching of copper from waste printed circuit boards by bacteria-free cultural supernatant of iron–sulfur–oxidizing bacteria. Bioresour. Bioprocess. 5: 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    En M, Zhang C, Jianfeng B and Wang J 2016 A green method for recycling materials from liquid crystal display panel. In: International IEEE Conference, Berlin, Electronics Goes Green, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wicks G G, Clark D E, Schulz R L and Folz D C 1995 Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications: Treatment of Discarded Electronic Circuitry (U). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR1 8500 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kingman S W, Appleton T J, Colder R I, Lowndes I S, and Read A G 2005 Microwave technology for energy-efficient processing of waste. Appl. Energy 81: 85–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Srikant S S, Mukherjee P S and Rao R B 2013 Prospects of microwave energy in material and mineral processing. Turk. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2: 23–31Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Srikant S S, Mukherjee P S and Rao R B 2013 Microwave energy for waste management. Min. Proc. Technol. 3: 948–953Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pickles C A 2009 Microwaves in extractive metallurgy: part 1—a review of fundamental. Miner. Eng. 22: 1102–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Srikant S S, Mukherjee P S and Rao R B 2014 Morphological characterization of Titania slag obtained from Red Sediment Placer Ilmenite using microwave energy. J. Inst. Eng. Ser. D 96: 43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jing S, Wang W, Liu Z and Ma C 2011 Recycling of waste printed circuit boards by microwave-induced heating and featured mechanical processing. Industrial and Engineering Research 50: 11763–11769Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jing S, Wang W, Liu Z and Ma C 2011 Study of the transference rules for bromine in waste printed circuit boards during microwave-induced pyrolysis. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 61: 535–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu K, Pan W P and Riley J T 2000 A study of chlorine behavior in a simulated fluidized bed combustion system. Fuel 79: 1115–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang Z, Guo S, Ye C 2016 Leaching of copper from metal powders mechanically separated from waste printed circuit boards in chloride media using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Procedia Environ. Sci. 31: 917–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajendra Prasad Mahapatra
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Satya Sai Srikant
    • 2
  • Raghupatruni Bhima Rao
    • 3
  • Bijayananda Mohanty
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Technology MizoramAizawlIndia
  2. 2.SRM Institute of Science and TechnologyModinagarIndia
  3. 3.CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials TechnologyBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations