Advertisement

Sādhanā

, 44:207 | Cite as

Feasibility study of installation of MW level grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant for northeastern region of India

  • Pankaj KalitaEmail author
  • Samar Das
  • Dudul Das
  • Pallab Borgohain
  • Anupam DewanEmail author
  • Rabindra Kangsha Banik
Article
  • 72 Downloads

Abstract

Solar energy is one of the most suitable renewable energy options in India. In the last decade, solar energy installations have received an ample impetus in India due to active initiatives taken by the Indian government. However, the solar energy potential of country’s North-Eastern (NE) part is not utilized effectively so far. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the feasibility of installation of a megawatt-level grid-connected solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plant in all the state capitals of NE India is carried out. The climatic data collected from various online sources and NASA climatic database were utilized in designing a 2 MW SPV plant. The theoretical procedure involved in designing the SPV plant is also presented in this study. PVsyst simulation software is used to predict the performance of 2 MW power plants for these eight states of India. From the analysis, it is observed that NE India has an immense potential for installation of solar energy conversion devices and thus it can be harvested economically. It has been observed that locations of Guwahati and Gangtok provide a high performance ratio of 0.855. Aizawl provides the minimum unit cost of electricity generated at a value of 3.88 INR/unit. The analysis also reveals that the Aizawl and Guwahati are the most suitable locations for installation of SPV power plant amongst the NE capitals.

Keywords

North-east India PV power plant PVsyst simulation life cycle assessment economic analysis CO2 mitigation 

List of symbols

\( A_{ACcable} \)

Cross-sectional area of AC cable (mm2)

\( A_{DCcable} \)

Cross-sectional area of DC cable (mm2)

\( C_{AU} \)

Annualized uniform cost (INR)

\( \left( {CO_{2} } \right)_{e} \)

CO2 emission from the embodied energy (tonnes of CO2)

\( C_{cap} \)

The capital cost of PV plant (INR)

\( C_{e} \)

Cost for electrical connection (INR)

\( C_{e\& c} \)

Erection and commissioning cost (INR)

\( \left( {CO_{2} } \right)_{m} \)

CO2 mitigation for the PV power plant (tonnes of CO2/year)

\( \left( {CO_{2} } \right)_{net} \)

Net CO2 mitigation for the PV power plant (tonnes of CO2)

\( \cos \varphi \)

The power factor

\( C_{m} \)

Module cost (INR)

\( C_{mis} \)

Miscellaneous cost (INR)

\( C_{ms} \)

Cost of mounting and structures (INR)

\( \left( {C_{\text{in}} } \right)_{t} \)

Total inflow of money (INR)

\( C_{inv} \)

Inverter cost, Indian Rupee (INR)

\( C_{l} \)

Land cost (INR)

\( \left( {C_{out} } \right)_{t} \)

Total outflow of money (INR)

\( \left( {C_{o\& m} } \right)_{a} \)

The annual operation and maintenance cost (INR)

\( \left( {C_{o\& m} } \right)_{NPV} \)

The net present value of operation and maintenance of the plant

\( D \)

Distance between the two rows (m)

\( d \)

Discount rate (%)

\( E_{embodied} \)

Total Embodied energy of the plant (kWh/m2)

\( E_{generated} \)

Annual electricity generated by the plant (kWh/m2)

\( E_{installation} \)

Total energy associated with installation of the PV system (kWh/m2)

\( E_{material} \)

Total material production energy for PV system (kWh/m2)

\( E_{manufacturing} \)

Total manufacturing energy for PV system (kWh/m2)

\( E_{o\& p} \)

Total operation and maintenance energy of PV module over the lifetime (kWh/m2)

\( E_{peak} \)

Peak capacity of the plant (kWp)

\( E_{solar} \)

Annual electricity generated by the plant (MWh/year)

\( E_{transport} \)

Total energy used for transportation of materials (kWh/m2)

\( G \)

Incident solar radiation (W/m2)

\( g \)

Inflation rate (%)

\( h \)

Height of the solar module (m)

\( I_{AC} \)

The current flowing in the cable (A)

\( I_{DC} \)

The current flowing in the cable (A)

\( I_{Inv - DC} \)

Maximum DC current of inverter (A)

\( I_{SC - Eff} \)

Effective short-circuit current (A)

\( I_{SC - STC} \)

Short-circuit current at STC (A)

\( L \)

Length of the solar module (m)

\( L_{ACcable} \)

The route length of AC cable (m)

\( L_{DCcable} \)

The route length of DC cable (m)

\( L_{plant} \)

Life time of the system (years)

\( L_{SH} \)

Shadow length (m)

\( N_{Inv} \)

Number of inverters

\( P_{TC} \)

Temperature corrected power output (W)

\( P_{STC} \)

Power output at STC (W)

\( T_{amb} \)

Ambient temperature of the location (°C)

\( SV \)

The salvage value (INR)

\( T_{op} \)

Operating temperature of the module (°C)

\( T_{e} \)

Electricity tariff (INR/kWh)

\( T_{STC} \)

Standard test temperature (°C)

\( V_{AC} \)

The voltage of the grid (V)

\( V_{Max - Eff} \)

Maximum effective voltage of the module (V)

\( V_{Min - Eff} \)

Minimum effective voltage of the module (V)

\( V_{MP} \)

The maximum power point voltage of the string/array (V)

\( V_{MP - STC} \)

Maximum power voltage at STC (V)

\( V_{OC - STC} \)

Open circuit Voltage at STC (V)

\( \left( {S_{AEG} } \right)_{NPV} \)

The present value annual savings from generated electricity of the plant (INR)

\( \left( {S_{SV} } \right)_{NPV} \)

The present value of saving from salvage value (INR)

\( \alpha \)

Sun elevation angle

\( \varphi \)

Latitude angle for solar PV site

\( \psi \)

Sun azimuth angle

\( \delta \)

Solar declination angle

\( \omega \)

Hour angle

\( \theta \)

Solar module tilt angle

\( \rho \)

Resistivity of the wire (Ω/mm/mm2)

\( \gamma_{{I_{sc} }} \)

Short-circuit temperature coefficient (%/°C)

\( \gamma_{p} \)

Maximum power temperature coefficient (%/°C)

\( \gamma_{{V_{oc} }} \)

Open circuit voltage temperature coefficient (%/°C)

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is a part of Start-up project (Grant Number: CEE/SG/IITG/PK1134/001) awarded to Dr. Pankaj Kalita, Assistant Professor, Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Assam, India. The financial support extended by Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Yergin D 1991 The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. Simon & Schuster, New York: Free Press Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Das D, Kalita P and Roy O 2018 Flat plate hybrid photovoltaic- thermal (PV/T) system: A review on design and development. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 84: 111–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goldthau A 2011 Governing global energy: Existing approaches and discourses. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 3: 213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    International Energy Agency 2014 Energy Security” EA Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme Paris. Available: http://www.iea.org/topics/energysecurity/ (accessed October 25, 2017)
  5. 5.
    Power sector at a glance all India 2016. Available: http://powermin.nic.in/content/power-sector-glance-all-india (accessed October 6, 2016)
  6. 6.
    Johannes F, Ge M and Pickens A 2017 World’s Top 10 Emitters, and How They’ve Changed. World Resour. Inst. Available: http://www.wri.org/blog/2017/04/interactive-chart-explains-worlds-top-10-emitters-and-how-theyve-changed (accessed April 11, 2017)
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Al-Maamary H M S, Kazem H A and Chaichan M T 2017 The impact of oil price fluctuations on common renewable energies in GCC countries. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 75: 989–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jain S, Jain N K and Vaughn W J 2018 Challenges in meeting all of India’s electricity from solar: An energetic approach. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 82: 1006–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sharma A, Srivastava K and Kar S K 2015 Jawaharlal Nehru national solar mission in India. Energy Sustainability Through Green Energy. Green Energy Technol. In: Sharma A and Kar S (Eds.). New Delhi: Springer 47–67 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bridge to India. SOLAR Including the 2017. Available: https://bridgetoindia.com/report/india-solar-map-september-2017/
  12. 12.
    Ministry of New and Renewable Energy 2016 A new dawn in Renewable Energy- India attains 4th position in global wind power installed capacity. Available: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=155612 (accessed January 29, 2017)
  13. 13.
    Shukla A K, Sudhakar K, Baredar P and Mamat R 2018 Solar PV and BIPV system: Barrier, challenges and policy recommendation in India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 82: 3314–3322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Central Statistics Office Energy Statistics 2017. Govt. India 2017. Available: http://mospi.gov.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/Energy_Statistics_2017r.pdf.pdf
  15. 15.
    MNRE 2017 Annual Report 2016–2017:2. Available: https://mnre.gov.in/file-manager/annual-report/2016-2017/EN/pdf/2.pdf
  16. 16.
    Indian Chamber of Commerce 2017 Powering the North-East Availability, Accessibility & Affordability. In: Conference on Energizing North East, Shillong, Meghalaya Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dikshit K R and Dikshit J K 2014 North-East India: Land, People and Economy. Dordrecht: SpringerCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li J, Liu F, Li Z, Shao C and Liu X 2018 Grid-side flexibility of power systems in integrating large-scale renewable generations: A critical review on concepts, formulations and solution approaches. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 93: 272–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jenniches S 2018 Assessing the regional economic impacts of renewable energy sources– A literature review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 93: 35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Akella A K, Saini R P and Sharma M P 2009 Social, economical and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Renew. Energy 34: 390–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muneer T, Asif M and Munawwar S 2005 Sustainable production of solar electricity with particular reference to the Indian economy. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 9: 444–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Eltawil M A and Zhao Z 2010 Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: Technical and potential problems-A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14: 112–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mitavachan H, Gokhale A and Srinivasan J 2011 A case study of 3-MW scale grid-connected solar photovoltaic power plant at Kolar, Karnataka. Report IISc-DCCC 11 RE 1 August 2011. Divecha Centre For Climate Change Indian Institute Of Science Bangalore 1–38Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kornelakis A and Koutroulis E 2009 Methodology for the design optimisation and the economic analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic systems. IET Renew. Power Gener. 3: 476–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chandel M, Agrawal G D, Mathur S and Mathur A 2014 Techno-economic analysis of solar photovoltaic power plant for garment zone of Jaipur city. Case Stud. Therm. Eng. 2: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sukumaran S and Sudhakar K 2017 Fully solar powered Raja Bhoj International Airport: A feasibility study. Resour. Technol. 3: 309–316Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mondal M A H and Islam A K M S 2011 Potential and viability of grid-connected solar PV system in Bangladesh. Renew. Energy 36: 1869–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sukumaran S and Sudhakar K 2017 Fully solar powered airport: A case study of Cochin International airport. J. Air Transp. Manag. 62: 176–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Moharil R M and Kulkarni P S 2007 A case study of solar photovoltaic power system at Sagardeep Island, India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13: 673–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ayompe L M, Duffy A, McCormack S J and Conlon M 2011 Measured performance of a 1.72kW rooftop grid connected photovoltaic system in Ireland. Energy Convers. Manag. 52: 816–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Velasco G, Guinjoan F, Pique R, Roman M and Conesa A 2011 Simulation-based criteria for the power sizing of grid-connected PV systems. Int. Rev. Model Simulations 4: 2524–2533Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ramoliya J V 2015 Performance Evaluation of Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic plant using PVSYST Software. J. Emerg. Technol. Innov. Res. 2: 372–378. Available :http://www.jetir.org/papers/JETIR1502036.pdf
  33. 33.
    Ramli M A M, Hiendro A, Sedraoui K and Twaha S 2015 Optimal sizing of grid-connected photovoltaic energy system in Saudi Arabia. Renew. Energy 75: 489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mondol J D, Yohanis Y G and Norton B 2006 Optimal sizing of array and inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Sol. Energy 80: 1517–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pearsall N 2016 Introduction to photovoltaic system performance. In: The Perform. of Photovolt. Syst. Model. Meas. Assess. Pearsall N, editor. Duxford: Woodhead publishing. 1–19Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Woyte A and Goy S 2016 Large grid-connected photovoltaic power plants: Best practices for the design and operation of large photovoltaic power plants. In: The Perform. Photovolt. Syst. Model. Meas. Assess. Pearsall N, editor. Duxford: Woodhead publishing. 321–333 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hasapis D, Savvakis N, Tsoutsos T, Kalaitzakis K, Psychis S and Nikolaidis N P 2017 Design of large scale prosuming in Universities: The solar energy vision of the TUC campus. Energy Build. 141: 39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rawat R, Kaushik S C and Lamba R 2016 A review on modeling, design methodology and size optimization of photovoltaic based water pumping, standalone and grid connected system. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 57: 1506–1519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anzalchi A and Sarwat A 2017 Overview of technical specifications for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Energy Convers. Manag. 152: 312–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berwal A K, Kumar S, Kumari N, Kumar V and Haleem A 2017 Design and analysis of rooftop grid tied 50 kW capacity Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) power plant. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 77: 1288–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wu Y-K, Lin J-H and Lin H-J 2017 Standards and Guidelines for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems: A Review and Comparison. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 53: 3205–3216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Al Garni and H Z Awasthi A 2018 Solar PV Power Plants Site Selection: A Review. Adv. Renew. Energies Power Technol. Vol 1: Solar and Wind Energies. In: Yahyaoui I (editor), Elsevier. 57–75Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sidi C E B E, Ndiaye M L, El Bah M, Mbodji A, Ndiaye A and Ndiaye P A 2016 Performance analysis of the first large-scale (15 MWp) grid-connected photovoltaic plant in Mauritania. Energy Convers. Manag. 119: 411–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Senol M, Abbasoglu S, Kukrer O and Babatunde A A 2016 A guide in installing large-scale PV power plant for self consumption mechanism. Sol. Energy 132: 518–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Babatunde A A, Abbasoglu S and Senol M 2018 Analysis of the impact of dust, tilt angle and orientation on performance of PV Plants. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 90: 1017–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Halliday A and Kashyap S G 2016 Massive push to railway infrastructure under way in Northeast. The Indian Express. Available: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/the-new-northeast-expresses/
  47. 47.
    Parretta A, Sarno A and Vicari L R M 1998 Effects of solar irradiation conditions on the outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules. Opt. Commun. 153: 153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Das D, Kalita P, Dewan A and Tanweer S 2019 Development of a novel thermal model for a PV/T collector and its experimental analysis. Sol. Energy.188: 631–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xydis G 2013 The wind chill temperature effect on a large-scale PV plant- an exergy approach. Prog. Photovoltaics 21: 1611–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sayyah A, Horenstein M N and Mazumder M K 2014 Energy yield loss caused by dust deposition on photovoltaic panels. Sol. Energy 107: 576–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ndiaye A, Kebe C M F, Ndiaye P A, Charki A, Kobi A and Sambou V 2013 Impact of dust on the photovoltaic (PV) modules characteristics after an exposition year in Sahelian environment: The case of Senegal. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 8: 1166–1173Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ndiaye A, Charki A, Kobi A, Kebe C M F, Ndiaye P A and Sambou V 2013 Degradations of silicon photovoltaic modules: A literature review. Sol. Energy 96: 140–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Al-Sabounchi A M, Yalyali S A and Al-Thani H A 2013 Design and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic grid-connected system in hot weather conditions. Renew. Energy 53: 71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jain S K, Kumar V and Saharia M 2013 Analysis of rainfall and temperature trends in northeast India. Int. J. Climatol. 33: 968–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bhattacharya T, Chakraborty A K and Pal K 2014 Effects of Ambient Temperature and Wind Speed on Performance of Monocrystalline Solar Photovoltaic Module in Tripura, India. J. Sol. Energy 2014: 1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dubey S, Sarvaiya J N and Seshadri B 2013 Temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency and its effect on PV production in the world- A review. Energy Procedia 33: 311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mekhilef S, Safari A, Mustaffa W E S, Saidur R, Omar R and Younis M A A 2012 Solar energy in Malaysia: Current state and prospects. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16: 386–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kaldellis J K, Kapsali M and Kavadias K A 2014 Temperature and wind speed impact on the efficiency of PV installations. Experience obtained from outdoor measurements in Greece. Renew Energy 66: 612–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Prokop P and Walanus A 2015 Variation in the orographic extreme rain events over the Meghalaya Hills in northeast India in the two halves of the twentieth century. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 121: 389–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Suri M, Huld T A, Dunlop E D and Ossenbrink H A 2007 Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate countries. Sol Energy 81: 1295–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    World Weather Online 2017. Available: https://www.worldweatheronline.com/ (accessed September 26, 2017)
  62. 62.
    Kazem H A and Chaichan M T 2015 Effect of humidity on photovoltaic performance based on experimental study. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 10: 43572–43577Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Touati F A, Al-Hitmi M A and Bouchech H J 2013 Study of the effects of dust, relative humidity, and temperature on solar PV performance in Doha: Comparison between monocrystalline and amorphous PVS. Int. J. Green Energy 10: 680–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mani M and Pillai R 2010 Impact of dust on solar photovoltaic (PV) performance: Research status, challenges and recommendations. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14: 3124–3131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Khatib T, Mohamed A and Sopian K 2013 A review of photovoltaic systems size optimization techniques. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 22: 454–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    GSES 2013 Grid-Connected PV Systems: Design and Installation. 1 st Ed GSES India Sustainable Energy. Available: http://gses.in/publications/books/grid-connected-pv-systems-design-and-installation.
  67. 67.
    Labouret A and Villoz M 2010 Solar Photovoltaic Energy. Stevenage UK: The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    TATA Solar Power: Technical Datasheet TP300 series. Available: https://www.enf.com.cn/Product/pdf/Crystalline/5b233d229e43d.pdf
  69. 69.
    Bonfiglioli: Three-phase grid- connected photovoltaic inverter: RPS 450. Available: http://opis.cz/vectron/pdf/RPS/Cat_RPS450_gb.pdf
  70. 70.
    Radziemska E 2003 The effect of temperature on the power drop in crystalline silicon solar cells. Renew Energy 28: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chakraborty S and Sadhu P K 2015 Technical mapping of solar photovoltaic for the Coal City of India. Renewables Wind Water, Sol. 2: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sukhatme S P and Nayak J K 2017 Solar Energy. 4th Ed McGraw Hill EducationGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ayadi O, Al-Assad R and Al Asfar J 2018 Techno-economic assessment of a grid connected photovoltaic system for the University of Jordan. Sustain. Cities Soc. 39: 93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kumar B S and Sudhakar K 2015 Performance evaluation of 10 MW grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant in India. Energy Reports 1: 184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rashwan S S, Shaaban A M and Al-Suliman F 2017 A comparative study of a small-scale solar PV power plant in Saudi Arabia. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 80: 313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rehman S, Ahmed M A, Mohamed M H and Al-Sulaiman F A 2017 Feasibility study of the grid connected 10MW installed capacity PV power plants in Saudi Arabia. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 80: 319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kumar N M, Kumar M R, Rejoice P R and Mathew M 2017 Performance analysis of 100 kWp grid connected Si-poly photovoltaic system using PVsyst simulation tool. Energy Procedia 117: 180–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Barua S, Prasath R A and Boruah D 2017 Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic System Design and Assessment for the Academic Campus Using PVsyst Software. Int. J. Electron. Electr. Eng. 5: 76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Karki P, Adhikary B and Sherpa K 2012 Comparative study of grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system in Kathmandu and Berlin using PVsyst. In: Proc. IEEE Third Int. Conf. Sustain. Energy Technol. Kathmandu, Nepal: IEEE. 196–199Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sharma V and Chandel S S 2013 Performance analysis of a 190 kWp grid interactive solar photovoltaic power plant in India. Energy 55: 476–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Okello D van, Dyk E E and Vorster F J 2015 Analysis of measured and simulated performance data of a 3.2kWp grid-connected PV system in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Energy Convers. Manag. 100: 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Charles R 2015 Optimum Tilt of Solar Panels. Available: http://www.solarpaneltilt.com/ (accessed November 12, 2016)
  83. 83.
    Indian Meteorological Department 2010, Annual Report 2010. Available: http://metnet.imd.gov.in/imdnews/ar2010.pdf
  84. 84.
    Castellano N N, Gazquez Parra J A, Valls-Guirado J and Manzano-Agugliaro F 2015 Optimal displacement of photovoltaic array’s rows using a novel shading model. Appl. Energy 144: 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Deline C, Dobos A, Janzou S, Meydbray J and Donovan M 2013 A simplified model of uniform shading in large photovoltaic arrays. Sol. Energy 96: 274–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bouzguenda M, Al Omair A, Al Naeem A, Al-Muthaffar M and Wazir O B 2014 Design of an off-grid 2 kW solar PV system. In: Proc. 9th Int Conf Ecol Veh Renew Energies, EVER 2014. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IEEE 1–6Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ren Z, Jacques S, Bissey S, Batut N, Schellmanns A and Caldeira A 2014 PVLab: an innovative and flexible simulation tool to better size photovoltaic units. In: Proc. International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality, ICREPQ 2014. Cordoba, Spain: Renew. Energies Power Qual. J. 1: 87–91Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Draft Environmental impact report, Environmental impact analysis, 2017, ESA PCR, Alamada. Available: https://planning.lacity.org/eir/668SoAlamedaStreet/Deir/4.1%20Aesthetics.pdf
  89. 89.
    Climate-Data.org. 2017 Climate Data for Cities Worldwide. Available: https://en.climate-data.org/ (accessed October 25, 2017)
  90. 90.
    Chakraborty S, Sadhu P K and Pal N 2015 Technical mapping of solar PV for ISM-an approach toward green campus. Energy Sci. Eng. 3: 196–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sherwani A F, Usmani J A and Varun 2010 Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14: 540–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tiwari A, Barnwal P, Sandhu G S and Sodha M S 2009 Energy metrics analysis of hybrid- photovoltaic (PV) modules. Appl. Energy 86: 2615–2625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Khatri R 2016 Design and assessment of solar PV plant for girls hostel (GARGI) of MNIT University, Jaipur city: A case study. Energy Reports 2: 89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kandpal T and Garg H 2003 Financial evaluation of renewable energy technologies. Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
  96. 96.
    India Inflation Rate. Available: https://tradingeconomics.com/india/inflation-cpi
  97. 97.
    Domestic Electricity LT Tariff Slabs and Rates for all states in India in 2019. Available: https://www.bijlibachao.com/news/domestic-electricity-lt-tariff-slabs-and-rates-for-all-states-in-india-in.html (accessed June 28, 2019)

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for EnergyIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology SilcharSilcharIndia
  3. 3.Department of Applied MechanicsIndian Institute of Technology DelhiHauz Khas, New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations