, 44:210 | Cite as

Investigations for machinability of primary recycled thermoplastics with secondary recycled rapid tooling

  • RUPINDER SINGHEmail author


This paper highlights the machinability of primary recycled thermoplastics as workpiece (WP) material with secondary recycled (reinforced) thermoplastic composites as rapid tooling (RT). Both WP and RT have been 3D printed on commercial fused deposition modelling. For investigating machinability of primary recycled thermoplastics, un-reinforced WP of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been selected. The RT materials were secondary reinforced (recycled) LDPE with double particle size Al2O3 particles and HDPE with triple particle size Al2O3. The machinability has been calculated in terms of weight loss of WP, while machining on a vertical milling set-up. This study also reports the surface hardness, porosity, surface roughness (Ra) and photomicrographic observations of WP and RT under controlled machining conditions. Further thermal analysis suggests that primary recycled thermoplastic can be successfully machined with secondary recycled RT, resulting in improved thermal stability and surface properties.


Machinability Al2O3 fused deposition modelling LDPE HDPE surface properties 



The authors are thankful to manufacturing research lab GNDEC, Ludhiana, for providing research facilities.


  1. 1.
    Zheng Y, Yanful E K and Bassi A S 2005 A review of plastic waste biodegradation. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 25: 243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li X, Tabil L G and Panigrahi S 2007 Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J. Polym. Environ. 15: 25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kuo C C and Su S S 2013 A simple method of improving the surface quality of rapid prototype. Indian J. Eng. Mater. Sci. 20: 6Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cruz F, Lanza S, Boudaoud H, Hoppe S and Camargo M 2012 Polymer recycling and additive manufacturing in an open source context: optimization of processes and methods. In: Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, pp. 1591–1600Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh R, Singh S and Fraternali F 2016 Development of in-house composite wire based feed stock filaments of fused deposition modelling for wear-resistant materials and structures. Compos. Part B Eng. 98: 244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hilton P D and Jacobs P F 2010 Rapid Tooling: Technologies and Industrial Applications. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 32–38Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Equbal A, Sood A K and Shamim M 2015 Rapid tooling: a major shift in tooling practice. J. Manuf. Ind. Eng. 14: 1–9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trucost 2016 Plastics and sustainability: a valuation of environmental benefits, costs and opportunities for continuous improvements. Retrieved 03 July 2019
  9. 9. Retrieved 03 July 2019
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Retrieved 03 July 2019
  12. 12. Retrieved 03 July 2019
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Vasconcelos P, Lino F, Neto R and Vasconcelos M 2002 Design and rapid prototyping evolution. In: Proceedings of the Advanced Solutions and Development Conference, vol. 4, pp. 58–65Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Afonso D and Pires L 2017 Direct rapid tooling for polymer processing using sheet metal tools. Procedia Manuf. 13: 102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bual G S and Kumar P 2014 Methods to improve surface finish of parts produced by fused deposition modeling. Manuf. Sci. Technol. 2: 51–55Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brostow W, Datashvili T, Jiang P and Miller H 2016 Recycled HDPE reinforced with sol–gel silica modified wood sawdust. Eur. Polym. J. 76: 28–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Masood S H and Song W Q 2004 Development of new metal/polymer materials for rapid tooling using fused deposition modelling. Mater. Des. 25: 587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Onwudili J A, Miskolczi N, Nagy J T and Lipóczi G 2016 Recovery of glass fibre and carbon fibres from reinforced thermosets by batch pyrolysis and investigation of fibre re-using as reinforcement in LDPE matrix. Compos. Part B Eng. 91: 154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bedi P, Singh R and Ahuja I P S 2017 Thermal characterisation of recycled HDPE reinforced with Al2O3. Int. J. Mater. Sci. Eng. 8(1): 107–111Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh R, Singh N, Fabbrocino F, Fraternali F and Ahuja I P S 2016 Waste management by recycling of polymers with reinforcement of metal powder. Compos. Part B Eng. 105: 23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bedi P, Singh R and Ahuja I P S 2018 Multifactor optimization of FDM process parameters for development of rapid tooling using SiC/Al2O3 reinforced LDPE filament. J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater. Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bedi P, Singh R and Ahuja I P S 2018. Effect of SiC/Al2O3 particle size reinforcement in recycled LDPE matrix on mechanical properties of FDM feed stock filament. Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 13(4): 246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar R, Singh R and Ahuja I P S 2019 Friction stir welding of ABS-15Al sheets by introducing compatible semi-consumable shoulder-less pin of PA6-50Al. Measurement 131: 461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumar R, Singh R, Ahuja I P S, Penna R and Feo L 2018 Weldability of thermoplastic materials for friction stir welding—a state of art review and future applications. Compos. Part B Eng. 137: 1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kumar R, Singh R and Ahuja I P S 2018 Investigations of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of FDM fabricated parts for friction welding applications. Measurement 120: 11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kumar R, Singh R and Ahuja I P S 2019 Friction stir welding of 3D printed melt flow compatible dissimilar thermoplastic composites. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part C J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 10.1177/0954406219848465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Majewsky M, Bitter H, Eiche E and Horn H 2016 Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGADSC). Sci. Total Environ. 568: 507–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Covas J A and Gaspar-Cunha A 2001 A computational investigation on the effect of polymer rheology on the performance of a single screw extruder. 1(1): 41–62Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferg E E and Bolo L L 2013 A correlation between the variable melt flow index and the molecular mass distribution of virgin and recycled polypropylene used in the manufacturing of battery cases. Polym. Test. J. 32(8): 1452–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Herrera-Franco P, Valadez-Gonzalez A and Cervantes-Uc M 1997 Development and characterization of a HDPE–sand–natural fiber composite. Compos. Part B Eng. 28(3): 331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bedi P, Singh R and Ahuja IPS 2018 A Comprehensive Study for 3D Printing of Rapid Tooling from Reinforced Waste Thermoplastics. Elsevier, Amsterdam. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Production EngineeringGuru Nanak Dev Engineering CollegeLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjabi UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations